Neurophysiological Basis of Movement - 2nd Edition / Edition 2 available in Other Format
Neurophysiological Basis of Movement, Second Edition, has been thoroughly updated and expanded, making it more comprehensive and accessible to students. With eight new chapters and 130 pages of fresh material, this second edition covers a wide range of topics, including movement disorders and current theories of motor control and coordination. By emphasizing the neurophysiological mechanisms relevant to the processes of generating voluntary movements, the text targets advanced undergraduates or beginning graduate students who want to better understand how the brain generates control signals and how the peripheral apparatus executes them.
The new chapters in Neurophysiological Basis of Movement, Second Edition, focus on motor control and motor synergies, prehension, changes in movement with aging, typical and atypical development, neuromuscular peripheral disorders, and disorders of the spinal cord, basal ganglia, cerebellum, and cortex. The text is designed so that instructors can cover all chapters or select the topics most relevant to their specific courses. In addition, this edition of Neurophysiological Basis of Movement offers these features:
-A new reference section with more than 700 references, providing supplemental resources that encourage students to read and understand research literature on the neurophysiology of movements
-A more reader-friendly presentation of material with an added color, improved illustrations, and introductions to the chapters that provide better transitions
-A new PowerPoint presentation package that includes 8 to 15 slides of art and text for every chapter, helping instructors prepare for lectures and allowing students to better understand the material Author Mark Latash presents the material using six levels, or worlds, of analysis of the neurophysiology of movements. These worlds are cells, connections, structures, behaviors (control and coordination), evolving and changing behaviors, and motor disorders. The first three levels are the basis for the analysis of a variety of actions, such as standing, locomotion, eye movements, and reaching. Further, changes in movement with fatigue, development, aging, disorder, and rehabilitation are discussed.
The text also presents six labs to help students perform experiments to address typical “template” research problems, and one-minute drills and self-test questions encourage students to think independently and to test their knowledge as they read. The answers to the self-test questions require students to think critically and explain why they selected a particular answer, as the problems have several answers with varying degrees of correctness.
Neurophysiological Basis of Movement, Second Edition, promotes independent thinking and enhances knowledge of basic facts about the design of cells, muscles, neuronal structures, and the whole body for better understanding of typical and atypical movement production related to the nervous system and the functioning brain.
|Publisher:||Human Kinetics Publishers|
|Edition description:||New Edition|
|Product dimensions:||8.70(w) x 10.80(h) x 1.20(d)|
|Age Range:||18 Years|
About the Author
Mark L. Latash, PhD, is a professor in the department of kinesiology at Penn State University in University Park, Pennsylvania. Dr. Latash has authored two other books, edited or coedited six other books, and published more than 200 peer-reviewed articles. He also initiated, and has edited for more than 10 years, the scientific journal Motor Control. Latash organized a series of conferences called Progress in Motor Control and has served as president for the International Society of Motor Control. He is a member of the Society for Neuroscience and the American Society of Biomechanics, and he is a fellow of the American Academy of Kinesiology and Physical Education (AAKPE).
Dr. Latash was appointed a distinguished professor of kinesiology in 2005 and has received numerous other awards, including some from Penn State, the University of Otago in New Zealand, and AAKPE. In his leisure time, he enjoys hiking, mushroom hunting, reading, and playing soccer.
Table of Contents
World I. Cells
Chapter 1. Membranes, Particles, and Potentials1.1. Complex System Approach1.2. The Biological Membrane1.3. Movement in a Solution1.4. Concentration of Water: Osmosis1.5. Movement of Ions: The Nernst Equation
Chapter 2. Action Potential2.1. Creation of Membrane Potential2.2. Basic Features of Action Potential2.3. Mechanism of Generation of Action Potential
Chapter 3. Information Conduction and Transmission3.1. Conduction of Action Potential3.2. Myelinated Fibers3.3. The Structure of Neuron3.4. Information Coding in the Nervous System3.5. Synaptic Transmission3.6. Neurotransmitters3.7. Temporal and Spatial Summation
Chapter 4. Skeletal Muscle4.1. Skeletal muscle: Structure4.2. Myofilaments4.3. Neuromuscular Synapse4.4. Mechanism of Contraction4.5. Types of Muscle Contraction4.6. Elements of Mechanics4.7. Force–Length and Force–Velocity Relations4.8. External Regimes of Muscle Contraction
Chapter 5. Receptors5.1. General Classification and Properties of Receptors5.2. Muscle Spindles5.3. The Gamma System5.4. Golgi Tendon Organs5.5. Other Muscle Receptors5.6. Articular Receptors5.7. Cutaneous Receptors5.8. Where Does the Information Go?
Chapter 6. Motor Units and Electromyography6.1. The Notion of Motor Unit6.2. Fast and Slow Motor Units6.3. The Henneman Principle (the Size Principle)6.4. Functional Role of Motor Units6.5. Electromyography6.6. Filtering, Rectification, and Integration
World I Problems
World II. Connections
Chapter 7. Excitation and Inhibition Within the Spinal Cord7.1. The Spinal Cord7.2. Excitation Within the Central Nervous System7.3. Postsynaptic Inhibition7.4. Renshaw Cells7.5. Ia-Interneurons7.6. Presynaptic Inhibition 7.7. Persistent Inward Current
Chapter 8. Monosynaptic Reflexes8.1. Reflexes8.2. Reflex Arc8.3. H- and T-Reflexes and M-Response8.4. Effects of Voluntary Muscle Activation on Monosynaptic Reflexes8.5. F-Wave
Chapter 9. Oligosynaptic and Polysynaptic Reflexes9.1. Oligosynaptic Reflexes9.2. Polysynaptic Reflexes9.3. Flexor Reflex9.4. Tonic Stretch Reflex9.5. Tonic Vibration Reflex9.6. Interaction Among Reflex Pathways9.7. Interjoint and Interlimb Reflexes
Chapter 10. Voluntary Control of a Single Muscle10.1. Feedforward and Feedback Control10.2. Servo Control10.3. The Servo-Hypothesis10.4. Alpha-Gamma Coactivation10.5. Voluntary Activation of Muscles10.6. Equilibrium-Point Control
Chapter 11. Patterns of Single-Joint Movements11.1. Isotonic Movements and Isometric Contractions11.2. Performance and Task Parameters11.3. EMG Patterns During Single-Joint Isotonic Movements11.4. EMG Patterns During Single-Joint Isometric Contractions11.5. The Dual-Strategy Hypothesis
Chapter 12. Preprogrammed Reactions12.1. Preprogrammed Reactions12.2. Preprogrammed Reaction Is not a Stretch Reflex12.3. In Search of the Afferent Source of Preprogrammed Reactions12.4. Preprogrammed Reactions During Movement Perturbations12.5. Basic Features of Preprogrammed Reactions12.6. Preprogrammed Corrections of Vertical Posture12.7. Corrective Stumbling Reaction
World II Problems
World III. Structures
Chapter 13. Elements of the Brain Anatomy13.1. Single-Neuron Recording13.2. Electroencephalography13.3. Evoked Potentials13.4. Radiography13.5. Computerized Tomography13.6. Positron Emission Tomography13.7. Magnetic Resonance Imaging13.8. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging13.9. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation13.10. Neuroanatomical Tracing13.11. Major Brain Structures
Chapter 14. Cerebral Cortex14.1. Cerebral Hemispheres14.2. Structure of the Cerebral Cortex14.3. Primary Motor and Premotor Areas14.4. Inputs to Motor Cortex14.5. Outputs of Motor Cortex14.6. Preparation for a Voluntary Movement14.7. Neuronal Population Vectors14.8. What Variables May Be Encoded in the Cortical Neuronal Activity?
Chapter 15. The Cerebellum15.1. Anatomy of the Cerebellum15.2. Cerebellar Inputs15.3. Cerebellar Outputs15.4. Relation of Cerebellar Activity to Voluntary Movement15.5. Neuronal Population Vectors15.6. The Effects of Cerebellar Lesions
Chapter 16. The Basal Ganglia16.1. Anatomy of the Basal Ganglia16.2. Inputs and Outputs of the Basal Ganglia16.3. Motor Circuits Involving the Basal Ganglia16.4. Activity of Basal Ganglia During Movements16.5. Effects of Lesions of the Basal Ganglia
Chapter 17. Ascending and Descending Pathways17.1. Basic Properties of Neural Pathways17.2. Afferent Input to the Spinal Cord17.3. Dorsal Column Pathway17.4. Spinocervical Pathway17.5. Spinothalamic Tract17.6. Spinocerebellar Tracts17.7. Spinoreticular Tract17.8. Pyramidal Tract17.9. Rubrospinal Tract17.10. Vestibulospinal Tracts17.11. Reticulospinal Tracts and Other Descending Tracts17.12. Propriospinal Tracts17.13. Cranial Nerves
Chapter 18. Memory18.1. Descartes' Dualism and Cellular Mechanisms of Memory18.2. Muscle Memory18.3. Types of Memory and Learning18.4. Habituation of Reflexes: An Example of Nonassociative Learning18.5. Conditioned Reflexes: An Example of Associative Learning18.6. Motor Learning 18.7. Short-Term and Long-Term Memory18.8. Neuronal and Synaptic Mechanisms of Memory18.9. Retrieval of Memory18.10. Genetic Code as an Example of Memory18.11. Plasticity in the Brain18.12. Korsakoff Syndrome18.13. Possible Role of Hippocampus and Cerebellum in Memory18.14. Spinal Memory
World III Problems
World IV. Behaviors: Control and Coordination
Chapter 19. General Issues of Motor Control19.1. Design of the Human Body: A Source of Problems19.2 Force Control19.3. Engrams and the Generalized Motor Program19.4. Internal Models19.5. The Equilibrium-Point Hypothesis: The Main Ideas19.6. The Equilibrium-Point Hypothesis: More Subtle Points19.7. Dynamic Systems Approach
Chapter 20. Motor Synergies 20.1. Motor Redundancy Problem 20.2. Optimization Approaches 20.3. Principle of Abundance 20.4. Structural Units and Synergies 20.5. Studies of Motor Synergies: Principal Component Analysis 20.6. Uncontrolled Manifold Hypothesis
Chapter 21. Postural Control21.1. Vertical Posture21.2. Postural Sway21.3. Vestibular System21.4. The Role of Vision in Postural Control 21.5. The Role of Proprioception in Postural Control 21.6. Anticipatory Postural Adjustments 21.7. Corrective Postural Reactions 21.8. Postural Synergies
Chapter 22. Locomotion22.1. Two Approaches to Locomotion22.2. Central Pattern Generator22.3. Locomotor Centers22.4. Spinal Locomotion22.5. Spinal Control of Locomotion in Humans 22.6. Gait Patterns22.7. Dynamic Pattern Generation 22.8. Step Initiation22.9. Corrective Stumbling Reaction
Chapter 23. Multijoint Movement23.1. General Features of Targeted Reaching Movements23.2. Major Problems of Controlling Natural Reaching Movements23.3. Interjoint Reflexes23.4. Spinal Mechanisms of Multijoint Coordination23.5. Supraspinal Mechanisms23.6. The Equilibrium-Trajectory Hypothesis23.7. What Is Controlled During Multijoint Movements?
Chapter 24. Prehension24.1. Hand Joints and Muscles24.2. Cortical Representations of the Hand24.3. Indices of Finger Interaction24.4. Multifinger Synergies in Pressing Tasks24.5. Grasping24.6. Prehension Synergies and the Principle of Superposition
Chapter 25. Eye Movement and Vision25.1. The Eye25.2. Photoreceptors25.3. Retina and Optic Nerve25.4. Oculomotor Control25.5. Central Mechanisms of Visual Perception25.6. The Role of Visual Information in Voluntary Movements
Chapter 26. Kinesthesia26.1. Which Physical Variables Are Sensed by Proprioceptors?26.2. Peripheral Sources of Kinesthetic Information26.3. The Role of the Motor Command in Kinesthesia26.4. Where Does the Information Go?26.5. Kinesthetic Illusions26.6. Pain
World IV Problems
World V. Evolving and Changing Behaviors
Chapter 27. Fatigue27.1. Fatigue and Its Contributors27.2. Muscular Mechanisms of Fatigue27.3. Spinal Mechanisms of Fatigue27.4. Supraspinal Mechanisms of Fatigue27.5. Adaptive Changes During Fatigue27.6. Abnormal Fatigue
Chapter 28. Effects of Aging28.1. General Features of Movements in Elderly28.2. Changes in Muscles and Motor units With Age28.3. Muscle Reflexes in Elderly28.4. Changes in the Sensory Function28.5. Muscle Activation Patterns During Fast Movements28.6. Changes in Posture and Gait with Age28.7. Hand Function in Elderly28.8. Adaptive Changes in Motor Patterns28.9. Effects of Training
Chapter 29. Typical and Atypical Development29.1. Humans at Birth29.2. Motor Milestones During Typical Development29.3. Exploration and Emergent Motor Patterns29.4. Down Syndrome29.5. Effects of Practice in Down Syndrome29.6. Autism29.7. Development Coordination Disorder
World VI. Motor Disorders
Chapter 30. Peripheral Muscular and Neurological Disorders30.1. Myopathies and Neuropathies30.2. Muscular Dystrophies30.3. Continuous Muscle Fiber Activity Syndromes30.4. Myasthenia Gravis30.5 Peripheral Neuropathies30.6. Motor Disorders Associated With Diabetes 30.7 Radiculopathies30.8. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
Chapter 31. Spinal Cord Injury and Spasticity31.1. Consequence of Spinal Cord Injury31.2. Signs and Symptoms of Spasticity31.3. Possible Mechanisms of Spasticity 31.4. Treatment of Spasticity31.5. Multiple Sclerosis
Chapter 32. Disorders Involving the Basal Ganglia32.1. Clinical Features of Parkinson's Disease32.2. Voluntary Movements in Parkinson's Disease32.3. Changes in Postural Control and Locomotion32.4. Treatment of Parkinson's Disease32.5. Huntington's Chorea32.6. Hemiballismus32.7. Dystonia32.8. Tardive Diskinesia
Chapter 33. Cerebellar Disorders 33.1. Consequences of Cerebellar Injuries in Animals33.2. Causes of Cerebellar Disorders33.3. Abnormalities of Stance and Gait33.4. Voluntary Movements in Cerebellar Disorders33.5. Cerebellar Tremor33.6. Ataxias33.7. Cerebellar Cognitive Affective Syndrome
Chapter 34. Cortical Disorders 34.1. Consequences of Lesions of Cortical Lobes34.2. Stroke34.3. Myoclonus34.4. Essential Tremor34.5. Tics34.6. Tourette's Syndrome34.7. Cerebral Palsy34.8. Williams Syndrome34.9. Wilson's Disease
Chapter 35. Implications for Motor Rehabilitation35.1. Do “Normal Movements” Exist?35.2. Back to the Problem of Structural Units and Synergies35.3. Changes in CNS Priorities35.4. The Role of CNS Plasticity35.5. Adaptive Changes in Motor Patterns of Atypical Individuals35.6. Amputation35.7. Practical Considerations
Worlds V and VI Problems
LaboratoriesLaboratory 1Laboratory 2Laboratory 3Laboratory 4Laboratory 5Laboratory 6
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“This is a valuable resource for students and entry-level professionals in fields related to motor control. The author has diligently and successfully critiqued his previous edition to produce a book that can help students learn and teachers facilitate in a critical thinking environment.” -Doody's Book Review Service