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New American Democracy / Edition 5

New American Democracy / Edition 5

by Morris P. Fiorina, Paul E. Peterson, Paul E. Peterson, Stephen D. Voss, Bertram G. Johnson

ISBN-10: 0321416147

ISBN-13: 9780321416148

Pub. Date: 01/02/2007

Publisher: Longman

The New American Democracy, Fifth Edition, emphasizes the centrality of elections in American politics today-and examines our country's evolution from a pluralist democracy to a more populist one-helping you understand how both have profoundly changed the way our political system operates. New to the Fifth Edition. Complete up-to-date coverage and analysis of the


The New American Democracy, Fifth Edition, emphasizes the centrality of elections in American politics today-and examines our country's evolution from a pluralist democracy to a more populist one-helping you understand how both have profoundly changed the way our political system operates. New to the Fifth Edition. Complete up-to-date coverage and analysis of the following topics: Historic 2006 congressional campaigns and elections, Concerns about terrorism and the governmental steps to combat it, Complexities of immigration-legal and illegal, Latest developments in the area of campaign finance, Civil rights of Latinos, Asian Americans, and gays and lesbians.

The new Election Voices feature, which follows many of the chapters, further emphasizes the text's election theme, thus enabling you to think critically and debate important topics such as immigration, pork spending, negative advertising, campaign finance and primary reform, the death penalty, homeland security, U.S. policy toward the ongoing Arab-Israeli conflict, school vouchers, and the "culture war."

Product Details

Publication date:
MyPoliSciLab Series
Edition description:
Older Edition
Product dimensions:
7.98(w) x 9.96(h) x 1.08(d)

Table of Contents

To the Students     xxvii
To Our Colleagues     xxxv
Acknowledgments     xli
About the Authors     xliii
The Foundations of a New American Democracy
Democracy in the United States     1
Elections in America     3
Half-a-Million Elected Officials     4
Nominating Candidates and Deciding Issues     5
International Comparison: Elections in Other Democracies     6
Government and Politics     6
Types of Government     8
Government by One Person     8
Government by the Few     8
Government by the Many     9
Popular and Responsible Democracy in the United States     10
The New American Democracy     11
The Permanent Campaign     11
Minorities and Elections     16
Majorities and Elections     19
Reform?     20
Benefits of an Electoral Democracy: A Pretty Good Government     21
Chapter Summary     23
Key Terms     23
Suggested Readings     23
On the Web     24
Establishing a Constitutional Democracy     25
The Colonial and Revolutionary Era     27
The Colonial Experience with Democracy     27
Spread of Democratic Ideals During the Revolutionary War     29
Theory of Rights and Representation     31
Government After Independence     33
Broadening Participation     34
The Articles of Confederation (1781-1789)     34
Drafting and Adopting a New Constitution     37
The Constitutional Convention     37
A Government of Separated Powers     39
The Bill of Rights     43
The Anti-Federalist-Federalist Debate     44
Amendments to the Constitution     46
Election Connection: Amendments to the Constitution Have Extended Liberties and Tightened the Election Connection     48
The Constitution: An Assessment     48
A Step Backward?     48
Achievements     49
The Constitution Today     50
International Comparison: Constitution-Making in Iraq     51
Chapter Summary     52
Key Terms     52
Suggested Readings     53
On the Web     53
Election Voices: The Politics of the Death Penalty     54
Federalism: Division of Power Among National, State, and Local Governments     59
The Federalism Debate: It's New But It's Old     61
Federalism in Context     61
International Comparison: Great Britain and the United States: Unitary and Federal Governments     62
Federalism and the Ratification of the Constitution     63
Evolution of the Federalism Debate     64
Dual Sovereignty and Nullification     65
The Supreme Court and the Meaning of Dual Sovereignty     67
The Commerce Clause and the Court-Packing Episode     67
Necessary and Proper Clause     70
State Sovereign Immunity     71
Cooperative Federalism     72
Spending Clause     72
Categorical Grants     74
Problems of Implementation     75
Block Grants     76
The Contemporary Debate     79
Democratic Dilemma: Categorical or Block Grant: Which Is Better?     80
Local Government     81
The Number and Types of Local Governments     82
Local Elections     82
Popularity of Local Government     83
Limits on Local Government     84
State Government     85
State Elections     86
Variation in State Government Responsibilities      86
Recent Developments at the State Level     87
Chapter Summary     89
Key Terms     89
Suggested Readings     90
On the Web     90
American Political Culture     91
International Comparison: Citizenship in Europe and United States     94
Americans: A Contradictory People?     94
Social Diversity     95
A Nation of Immigrants Then     96
A Nation of Immigrants Now     100
Immigration as a Contemporary Issue     101
Philosophical Unity     103
American Individualism     105
The Tension Between Individualism and Equality     107
One Nation, Under God?     108
Why a Liberal Political Culture?     112
Traditional Explanations of American Liberalism     112
Newer Explanations     113
Chapter Summary     115
Key Terms     116
Suggested Readings     116
On the Web     116
Election Voices: The Immigration Issue     117
The Ingredients of the New American Democracy
Public Opinion     121
What Is Public Opinion?     123
Sources of Public Opinion      124
Socialization     124
Personal Experiences     124
Self-Interest     125
Education     125
Reference Groups     125
The Media     126
Measuring Public Opinion     126
Sampling Error     127
Selection Bias     128
Measurement Error     130
Characteristics of Public Opinion     136
Public Opinion Is Uninformed     136
Many of the Opinions Expressed in Polls Are Not Strongly Held     138
Public Opinion Is Not Ideological     139
Public Opinion Is Inconsistent     141
Governing by Public Opinion?     143
The Power of Public Opinion     143
The Limits of Public Opinion: Gun Control     144
Chapter Summary     147
Key Terms     147
Suggested Readings     148
On the Web     148
Individual Participation     149
A Brief History of the Franchise in the United States     151
Voting Rights in the Amendment Process     151
How Voting Rights Spread     153
Why People Participate: Costs and Benefits     154
International Comparisons of Voter Turnout      156
Election Connection: Nonvoters Who Actually Turned Out     157
Personal Costs and Benefits: Registration     158
Personal Costs and Benefits: Compulsion     158
Other Personal Costs and Benefits     159
Democratic Dilemma: Can Voters Speak for Those Who Abstain?     160
Mobilization and Turnout     160
Why Has American Turnout Declined?     161
Declining Personal Benefits     163
Declining Mobilization     163
Declining Social Connectedness     164
Who Votes and Who Doesn't?     165
Is Low Turnout a Problem?     166
Three Arguments: Why Low Turnout Is Not a Problem     166
Three Arguments: Why Low Turnout Is a Problem     167
Evaluating the Arguments     169
Beyond the Voting Booth     169
Chapter Summary     171
Key Terms     172
Suggested Readings     172
On the Web     172
Election Voices: Should Voting Be Compulsory?     173
Interest-Group Participation in American Democracy     177
Interest Groups in the United States     179
Growth and Development of Groups     180
The Nature and Variety of "Interest Groups"     182
Forming and Maintaining Interest Groups     182
The Free-Rider Problem     184
Overcoming the Free-Rider Problem     185
How Interest Groups Influence Government     189
Lobbying     189
Grassroots Lobbying     191
Electioneering and PACs     192
Persuading the Public     194
Direct Action     196
Litigation     196
Why Groups Use Particular Tactics     196
Democratic Dilemma: Strange Bedfellows: The Battle for Seattle, 1999     197
How Influential Are Interest Groups?     198
Subgovernments     199
Issue Networks     200
Interest Groups and Democratic Politics     200
Chapter Summary     203
Key Terms     203
Suggested Readings     203
On the Web     204
Political Parties     205
What Parties Do     207
How Parties Contribute to Democratic Politics     208
How Parties Detract from Democratic Politics     209
The Balance Sheet     212
Political Parties in American History     213
The Party-Systems Interpretation of American History     213
Democratic Dilemma: Is Gridlock Necessarily Bad?     222
Two-Party and Multi-Party Systems     223
How Strong Are American Parties Today?     226
The Decline of Party Organizations     227
The Revival of Party Organizations?     228
Parties Versus Interest Groups     230
Chapter Summary     231
Key Terms     231
Suggested Readings     231
On the Web     231
The Media     233
Development of the Mass Media     235
The Partisan Press and the Penny Press     236
Newspapers and Magazines, 1865-1920     237
Radio and Television     238
The Contemporary Scene     240
The New Media     242
What Information Sources Do Americans Rely On?     244
Media Effects     247
Agenda Setting     247
Priming and Framing     248
Socialization     249
How Strong Are Media Effects?     250
Media Biases     251
Ideological Bias     251
Democratic Dilemma: Talk Radio-A Conservative Answer to the Liberal Press     254
Selection Bias     255
Professional Bias     257
International Comparison: Al Jazeera-Questionable Sources?     258
Prospects for Change     258
The Media and Electoral Politics     259
Campaign Coverage     259
The Conventions     260
The Presidential Debates     262
Media Coverage of Government     262
Emphasis on the President (and Other Personalities)     262
Emphasis on Conflict     263
Emphasis on the Negative     264
The Response: Exaggerated Concern with the Press     264
Chapter Summary     264
Key Terms     265
Suggested Readings     265
On the Web     266
Election Voices: Should Freedom of the Press Be Limited to Protect National Security?     267
Campaigns and Elections
Electing the President     272
Nominating a Presidential Candidate     273
Evolution of the Nomination Process     273
The Contemporary Nomination Process     274
Election Connection: A 2004 Caucus Experience     276
Financing Nomination Campaigns     277
The Presidential Nomination Process in Action     278
Strengths and Weaknesses of the Nomination Process     279
Who Nominates the Vice-President?     282
The General Election for President     282
Financing the General-Election Campaign     283
International Comparison: Campaign Financing in Other Democracies     284
Spending in the General-Election Campaign     285
The Electoral College     285
Voting Behavior in Presidential Elections     287
When Americans Decide     287
How Americans Decide     287
Limited Media Influence on Presidential Elections     293
The Contemporary Presidential Election Scene     294
The 1970s and 1980s: Republican "Lock"     294
The 1990s: Democratic Resurgence     296
The 2000 Election     297
The 2004 Showdown     298
Chapter Summary     299
Key Terms     299
Suggested Readings     299
On the Web     300
Election Voices: Is a National Primary the Best Way to Nominate Presidential Candidates?     301
Choosing the Congress     305
The Electoral Evolution of the Congress     308
Reapportionment and Redistricting     309
Democratic Dilemma: Why Not Senate Districts?     311
The Congressional Nomination Process     311
Contemporary House Elections     312
Party Decline     313
Expanding Member Resources     314
Growth in Importance of "Representative" Behavior     314
Campaign Funds     315
More Responsive Incumbents     317
Contemporary Senate Elections     318
Party Competition     318
Uncontrolled Information     319
Better Challengers     319
High Ambitions     320
National Forces in Congressional Elections     320
National Forces in the 1990s: A New Era?     321
Congressional Elections in the 2000s: Neck and Neck     321
Election Connection: How Not to Be Reelected to Congress     322
Why Have National Forces Grown Stronger?     323
Do Congressional Elections Produce a Representative Body?     324
Women     326
Minorities     326
Elections, Parties, and Group Representation     328
Chapter Summary     329
Key Terms     329
Suggested Readings     329
On the Web     330
The Government
The Congress and Its Work      331
Congress-The First Branch     333
The Organization of Congress     334
The Congressional Parties     335
International Comparison: Congress in a Presidential System     336
The Committee System     339
Caucuses     344
How a Bill Becomes a Law     344
Evaluating Congress     348
Criticisms of Congress     348
Why Americans Like Their Members of Congress So Much More Than Congress Itself     349
Chapter Summary     351
Key Terms     351
Suggested Readings     351
On the Web     352
Election Voices: An Explosion of Earmarks     353
The Presidency: Powers and Practice     357
Presidential Constituencies     359
National Constituency     359
Partisan Constituencies     361
Partisan Support in Congress     361
Democratic Dilemma: Is Divided Government Good or Bad?     362
Separate Institutions Sharing Power     363
The Power to Inform and Persuade     363
The Veto Power     366
The Appointment Power     367
The Power to Recommend     370
The President as Chief of State     372
International Comparison: The Chief of State in Other Countries     373
Inherent Executive Power     376
The Impeachment Power     377
Presidential Expectations and Presidential Performance     378
Presidential Reputations     379
Presidential Popularity     379
Great Presidents     380
Chapter Summary     383
Key Terms     383
Suggested Readings     383
On the Web     384
Election Voices: The Politics of U.S. Energy Policy     385
The Bureaucracy     389
The Role of the Bureaucracy     391
The Bureaucracy Problem     393
Impossibility of Tasks     393
Difficulty Measuring Performance     393
Expansionary Tendencies     394
Slow to Change     394
Red Tape     394
American Bureaucracies: Particularly Political     395
Difficult Beginnings     396
Mountains of Patronage     396
Advantages of the Spoils System     398
Disadvantages of the Spoils System     398
Erosion of the Spoils System     399
Political Appointees Today     400
International Comparison: Political Versus Professional Bureaucrats     401
The President and the Bureaucracy     402
The Cabinet     403
Independent Regulatory Agencies     405
Office of Management and Budget     406
Congress and the Bureaucracy     407
Senate Confirmations     407
Agency Reorganization     409
Legislative Detail     410
Budgetary Control     410
Election Connection: Congressional Legislation: A Matter of Detail     411
Legislative Oversight     412
Iron Triangles and Issue Networks     412
Elections and the Bureaucracy     414
Bureaucratic Secrecy     415
Bureaucratic Coercion     416
Agency Expansion     416
Administrator Caution     417
Compromised Capacity     417
Muddling Through     417
Chapter Summary     419
Key Terms     419
Suggested Readings     419
On the Web     420
Election Voices: The Politics of the New Department of Homeland Security     421
The Courts     425
State Courts      427
State Trial Courts: The Judicial Workhorses     427
Prosecuting State Cases     429
An Independent and Powerful Federal Judiciary     430
Tenure and Salary     430
Judicial Review     430
Three Theories of Constitutional Interpretation     432
Judicial Review in Practice     434
Statutory Interpretation     436
The Federal Court System in Practice     436
International Comparison: Statutory Interpretation in the United States and Britain     437
District Courts     437
Appeals Courts     438
Specialized Courts     439
Selection of Federal Judges     439
Deciding to Prosecute     440
Relations Between State and Federal Courts     440
The Supreme Court     442
The Politics of Supreme Court Appointments     442
Election Connection: The Harriet Miers Nomination to the Supreme Court     445
Stare Decisis     446
Certs     446
The Role of the Chief Justice     447
The Role of the Solicitor General     448
The Role of Clerks     448
Supreme Court Decision Making     449
Voting on the Supreme Court     451
Checks on Court Power     452
Constitutional Amendment     452
Statutory Revision     452
Nonimplementation     453
Litigation as a Political Strategy     454
Chapter Summary     454
Key Terms     455
Suggested Readings     455
On the Web     456
Civil Liberties and Civil Rights
Civil Liberties     457
Origins of Civil Liberties in the United States     459
Origins of the Bill of Rights     459
Few Liberties Before the Civil War     460
Applying the Bill of Rights to State Governments     461
Freedom of Speech, Assembly, and Press     462
Free Speech and Majoritarian Democracy     462
From "Bad Tendency" to "Clear and Present Danger"     463
Democratic Dilemma: Do Campus Speech Codes Unduly Restrict Free Speech?     465
Fighting Words Doctrine     466
Balancing Doctrine     466
Fundamental Freedoms Doctrine     467
Freedom of the Press     468
Freedom of Association     469
Limitations on Free Expression     469
Freedom of Religion      471
Establishment of Religion Clause     471
Free Exercise of Religion Clause     472
Establishment of Religion or Free Exercise?     473
Law, Order, and the Rights of Suspects     473
Election Politics and Criminal Justice     474
International Comparison: United States Has Much Higher Murder, but Not Burglary, Rates Than Most Other Countries     475
Search and Seizure     475
Immunity Against Self-Incrimination     477
Impartial Jury     477
Legal Counsel     478
Double Jeopardy     478
Rights in Practice: Habeas Corpus     479
Rights in Practice: The Plea Bargain     479
The Right of Privacy     480
Regulation of Sexual Behavior     481
Abortion: Right to Life or Right to Choose?     481
Privacy in the Information Age     483
Chapter Summary     484
Key Terms     485
Suggested Readings     485
On the Web     486
Election Voices: School Choice: Vouchers and Charter Schools     487
Civil Rights     491
Origins of Civil Rights     493
Conflict Over Civil Rights After the Civil War      494
Early Court Interpretations of Civil Rights     496
Blacks Get Electoral Power     496
Awakening the Supreme Court to Civil Rights     498
Redefining the Equal Protection Clause     498
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas     499
Civil Rights After Brown     500
Decline in Strength of the Civil Rights Movement     503
Supreme Court No Longer Forges Ahead     504
Affirmative Action     505
Elections, Courts, and Civil Rights: An Appraisal     507
Civil Rights of Other Minorities     507
Latinos     507
Asian Americans     509
Gays and Lesbians     510
Native Americans     511
Women's Rights     512
The Right to Equality Before the Law     512
Initial Court Response to Women's Rights     514
Discrimination in the Workplace     515
Sexual Harassment     515
Single-Sex Schools and Colleges     515
The Future of Women's Rights     516
Americans with Disabilities     516
Chapter Summary     518
Key Terms     519
Suggested Readings     519
On the Web      520
Public Policy
Domestic Policy     521
Types of Public Policy     523
Stages of Policy Making     523
Social Policy     524
Social Insurance for Senior Citizens     525
Public Assistance to Poor Families     530
Education Policy     535
Local Control     536
Development of Public Education     536
Contemporary Issues in Education Policy     536
International Comparison: Student Learning and School Expenditures     538
Politics of Education     539
Regulation     539
The Rise of Federal Regulation     540
Justifications for Regulation     540
Politics of Regulation     543
Deregulation     545
Chapter Summary     546
Key Terms     546
Suggested Readings     547
On the Web     547
Economic Policy     549
Economic Growth and the Business Cycle     551
Economic Conditions and Political Fortunes     552
Fiscal Policy     553
Use of the Budget Deficit     554
Decline of Fiscal Policy     555
Monetary Policy: The Federal Reserve System     558
The Fed Chair     559
Who Controls the Fed?     560
The "T" Word: Taxes     563
The Tax Burden     564
The Tax Base     565
Tax Progressivity     566
Tax Reform     567
The U.S. Economy: An International Comparison     567
Taxes     568
National Debt     569
Employment Opportunities     569
Inequality     570
Chapter Summary     571
Key Terms     571
Suggested Readings     572
On the Web     572
Foreign and Defense Policy     573
Elections, Presidents, and Foreign Policy     575
Need for Fast Action     575
Voters' Focus on Presidents     575
Limited Role of Interest Groups     578
Congressional Role     579
Foreign Policy Responsibilities of the President and Congress     579
War Power     579
War Powers Resolution     581
Treaty Power     583
Foreign Policy Institutions: From Cold War to Homeland Defense     584
The Cold War and the Post-Cold War World     585
State Department     587
Defense Department     589
International Comparison: United States-Lucky in War     590
Central Intelligence Agency     592
National Security Council     594
Ideals, Interests, and the Worldwide Campaign Against Terror     595
Strategies for Nation Building     595
Role of International Organizations     597
Chapter Summary     599
Key Terms     600
Suggested Readings     600
On the Web     601
Election Voices: The U.S. Politics of the Arab-Israeli Conflict     602
The Declaration of Independence     607
The Constitution of the United States of America     610
The Federalist No. 10     624
The Federalist No. 51     629
Presidents of the United States of America     632
Glossary     633
Endnotes     643
Name Index     679
Subject Index     683
Photo Credits     701

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