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Table of ContentsI. WRITING.
1. Writing and Computers.
Why Write with a Computer?
2. Critical Thinking and Reading.
The Reading Process.
The Writing Process.
Experiment and Explore.
Invent and Prewrite.
Gather Preliminary Information from Sources.
Plan and Organize.
Review Your Prewriting, Thesis, and Outline Before You Compose.
Use a Method for Composing.
Strategies for Composing with a Computer.
A Student Draft.
Shift from Writer to Reader.
Responding to the Work of Others.
A Model Student Paper.
6. Structuring Paragraphs.
Write Unified Paragraphs.
Write Coherent Paragraphs with Clear Organizational Patterns.
Write Coherent Paragraphs with Sentence Linking Techniques.
Be Consistent with Verb Tense, Person, and Number.
Decide What Makes a Fully Developed Paragraph.
Link Paragraphs Together with Key Words.
7. Formulating Arguments.
Formulate an Arguable Thesis.
Generate Good Supporting Evidence.
Take Note of Evidence for Alternative Views as Well.
Develop and Test Your Points.
Build a Compelling Case.
Structure the Argument.
Avoid Logical and Emotional Fallacies.
8. The Research Project.
Become a Researcher.
Schedule a Time Frame.
Create a Research Notebook.
Create a Working Bibliography.
Gather Background Information.
Conduct Focused Research.
9. Using the Internet for Research.
Internet Sources and the Research Process.
Information Found On the Internet and Web.
Example of aStudent Internet Search.
10. Evaluating Electronic and Print Sources.
Choosing Legitimate Sources.
Evaluating a Series of Web Links.
11. Using Sources.
Use Sources Responsibly.
12. Writing the Research Paper.
Refine Your Rhetorical Stance and Thesis.
Plan a Structure.
Write a Draft.
Review and Revise Your Draft.
Follow Formatting Conventions.
Sample Research Paper.
13. Documentation Formats.
Understanding Systems of Documentation.
Using the MLA System of Documentation.
Using the APA System of Documentation.
Using the Chicago Manual of Style (CMS).
Using the CBE System of Documentation.
Using the COS System of Documentation.
Style Manuals for the Disciplines.
III. WRITING IN THE DISCIPLINES.
14. Writing in the Humanities and Writing about Literature.
Types of Writing in the Humanities.
Writing about Literature.
An Example of Literary Interpretation.
An Example of Literary Analysis (in MLA Format).
Technology and the Humanities.
Reference Materials for the Humanities.
15. Writing in the Natural Sciences.
Writing about Science.
Types of Writing in the Sciences.
An Example of a Research Report (CBE Format).
Technology and the Sciences.
Reference Materials for the Sciences.
16. Writing in the Social Sciences.
Writing about the Social Sciences.
Types of Writing in the Social Sciences.
An Example of a Research Report (APA Format).
Technology and the Social Sciences.
Reference Materials for the Social Sciences.
IV. DOCUMENT DESIGN.
17. Design Principles and Graphics.
Three Basic Design Principles.
Respecting Different Norms and Preferences.
18. Desktop Publishing.
Produce a Simple Brochure.
Produce a Simple Newsletter.
19. Designing for the Web.
Designing for the Web.
Planning Your Web Document.
20. Writing for the Web.
Constructing Your Web Pages.
Refining Your Web Site.
V. SPECIAL PURPOSE WRITING.
21. Using E-Mail & Computer Networks.
Logging On to Networks.
Building Community Through Electronic Mail.
22. Business Correspondence and Reports.
Letters of Application.
23. Essay Exams.
Prepare for the Essay Exam.
Use the Writing Process in Abbreviated Form.
Sample Student Responses to an Essay Exam Question.
VI. SENTENCE GRAMMAR.
24. Sentence Structure.
Identifying Parts of Speech.
Identifying Basic Sentence Patterns.
25. Pronoun Case.
Use Subjective Case Forms.
Use Objective Case for Pronouns Functioning as Objects.
In Constructions Where the Pronoun Is Paired with a Noun, Test for Pronoun Case by Seeing What It Should Be without the Noun.
With the Pronouns Who, Whom, Whoever, Whomever, and Whose, Choose the Appropriate Form According to How It Functions in Its Clause.
Use Possessive Case to Show Ownership.
If You Use a Pronoun for the Second Part of a Comparison, Choose Its Case According to How the Pronoun Would Function in Its Own Full Clause.
Regular Verb Forms.
Using Irregular Verbs.
Using Auxiliary Verbs.
Sequence of Tenses.
Transitive versus Intransitive Verbs.
Make Your Verbs Agree in Number with Their Grammatical Subjects.
Make Your Pronouns Agree in Number with Their Antecedents.
28. Adjectives and Adverbs.
Adjectives Modify Nouns.
Nouns Can Function as Adjectives, Modifying Other Nouns.
Adverbs Modify Verbs, Adjectives, and Other Adverbs.
Good versus Well; Bad versus Badly.
Using Comparative and Superlative Forms of Adjectives and Adverbs.
VII. CORRECT SENTENCES.
Make Sure Your Sentences Are Grammatically Complete.
Make Sure Dependent Clauses Are Not Left Alone as Sentences.
Make Sure That Phrases Are Not Left Alone as Sentences.
Use Fragments Only for Rare Special Effect.
30. Commas Splices and Run-On Sentences.
Turn One of the Clauses in a Comma Splice or Run-On Sentence into a Subordinate Clause.
Separate a Comma Splice or Run-On Sentence with a Comma and a Coordinating Conjunction (And, Or, But, Etc.).
Separate a Comma Splice or Run-On Sentence with a Semicolon.
Separate a Comma Splice or Run-On Sentence with a Period.
31. Pronoun Reference.
Make Pronouns Refer Clearly to a Specific Noun Antecedent.
Be Especially Careful about This, That, Which, and It.
Avoid Mixing Uses of It.
That versus Which.
32. Misplaced and Dangling Modifiers.
Position Modifiers Close to the Words They Modify.
In Most Cases, Put Lengthy Modifiers at the Beginning or End of the Sentence.
Avoid Placing a Modifier Between a Verb and Its Object or Complement.
Make Sure Introductory Verbal Phrases Modify a Specific Word.
33. Maintaining Consistency.
Avoid Unnecessary Shifts in Person and Number.
Avoid Unnecessary Shifts in Tense, Mood, and Subject.
Avoid Unnecessary Shifts in Tone.
Avoid Mixed Constructions.
Create Consistency between Subjects and Predicates.
VIII. EFFECTIVE SENTENCES.
34. Clarity and Conciseness.
Avoid Excessively Long Sentences.
Avoid Unnecessary Repetition and Redundancy.
Use Expletives Only Where Appropriate.
Use Passive-Voice Constructions Only Where Appropriate.
Eliminate Wordy Phrases.
Avoid a Noun-Heavy Style.
Choose Words That Express Your Meaning Precisely.
Use That When Necessary to Clarify Sentence Structure.
Make Comparisons Complete and Clear.
Avoid Multiple Negation.
35. Coordination and Subordination.
Combining Closely Related Sentences.
Put Parallel Content in Parallel Form.
Use Parallelism for All Items in a Series or List.
Use Parallelism with Both/And, Either/Or, and Other Correlative Conjunctions.
Use Parallelism to Signal Comparisons or Contrasts.
Make Parallel Constructions Complete and Clear.
Use Parallelism among Sentences to Enhance Paragraph Coherence.
Create Emphasis by Using End-Weight.
Create Emphasis through Selective Repetition.
Create Emphasis through Contrast.
Create Emphasis through Careful Word Choice.
Occasionally Create Emphasis with Punctuation or Typography.
Vary Your Sentence Length.
Vary Your Sentence Types.
Avoid Excessive Repetition.
Respect Different Standards and Purposes.
39. Word Processing Tools for Improving Sentences.
Using Style/Grammar Checkers
Using Other Word Processing Applications for Sentence Revision.
Using Style Templates.
Using Internet Resources for Writing Help.
IX. EFFECTIVE WORDS.
40. Choosing the Right Words.
Choosing the Right Denotations.
Choosing the Right Connotation.
Choose the Right Level of Formality.
Avoid Jargon, Slang, or Dialect Except When Your Audience Is Made Up Entirely of "Insiders."
Try to Please the Ear.
Using Figurative Language.
41. Avoiding Biased Language.
Avoid Biased Language about Gender.
Avoid Biased Language about Race and Ethnicity.
Avoid Biased Language about Age.
Avoiding Biased Language about Other Differences.
42. Building a Powerful Vocabulary.
Learning Roots, Prefixes, and Suffixes.
Learning Denotations and Connotations.
Learning Related Words.
43. Using a Thesaurus and a Dictionary.
Use a Thesaurus to Find the Exact Word That Captures Your Meaning.
Use a Dictionary to Learn about Individual Words.
Use a Spell Checker.
Master the Most Troublesome Homophones.
Guard against Common Spelling Errors.
Learn Some Basic Spelling Rules and Patterns.
45. End Punctuation.
Using the Period.
Using the Question Mark.
Using the Exclamation Point.
46. The Comma.
Use a Comma to Set off Introductory Phrases or Clauses.
Use a Comma Before a Coordinating Conjunction (And, But, Or, Nor, For, So) to Separate Independent Clauses.
Use Commas between Items in a Series.
Use Commas to Set off Non-Essential Phrases or Clauses.
Use Commas to Set off However, Therefore, and Other Conjunctive Adverbs.
Using Commas in Dates, Place Names, Titles, Degrees, and Numbers.
Using Commas with Quotations.
Using Commas with Markers of Direct Address.
Avoiding the Misuse of Commas.
47. The Semicolon.
Use a Semicolon to Separate Closely-Related Independent Clauses.
Use Semicolons Between Items in a Complex Series with Internal Punctuation.
Place Semicolons Outside of Quotation Marks.
Avoid Common Semicolon Errors.
48. The Colon.
Use a Colon to Introduce a List or Appositive.
Use a Colon to Separate Two Independent Clauses, the Second of Which Explains the First.
Use a Colon to Introduce a Quotation.
Using Colons in Titles.
Using Colons in Business Letters and Memos.
Using Colons in Numbers Addresses.
49. The Apostrophe.
Use an Apostrophe with Nouns to Indicate Possession.
Use an Apostrophe to Indicate Contractions or Omissions.
Using an Apostrophe to Mark Certain Plural Forms.
50. Quotation Marks.
Use Quotation Marks for Direct Quotations.
Using Quotation Marks to Suggest Skepticism about the Conventional Use of a Term.
Using Quotation Marks to Indicate Shifts of Register.
Use Quotation Marks When Citing Titles of Short Works.
Using Quotation Marks with Other Punctuation and in Dialogue.
51. Other Punctuation Marks.
Using an Ellipsis.
Using E-mail Diacritics.
52. Capital Letters and Italics.
Capitalize the First Word of All Free-Standing Sentences.
Capitalize All Names, Titles, and Proper Adjectives.
Capitalize All Significant Words in Titles.
With Email Addresses and URL'S, Use Case According to the Owner's Preferences.
53. Abbreviations and Numbers.
54. The Hyphen.
Using Hyphens in Compound Words.
Using Hyphens for End-of-Line Word Division.
XII. ESL PROBLEMS.
55. Tips on Nouns and Articles.
Count versus Noncount Nouns.
56. Tips on Verbs.
57. Tips on Word Order.
Strings of Adjectives.
58. Tips on Vocabulary.
Cognates and 'False Friends.'
Glossary of Computer Terms.
Glossary of Grammatical Terms.
Glossary of Usage.