Pub. Date:
Oxford University Press
New Directions in Conservation Medicine: Applied Cases of Ecological Health

New Directions in Conservation Medicine: Applied Cases of Ecological Health

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In recent years, species and ecosystems have been threatened by many anthropogenic factors manifested in local and global declines of populations and species. Although we consider conservation medicine an emerging field, the concept is the result of the long evolution of transdisciplinary thinking within the health and ecological sciences and the better understanding of the complexity within these various fields of knowledge. Conservation medicine was born from the cross fertilization of ideas generated by this new transdisciplinary design. It examines the links among changes in climate, habitat quality, and land use; emergence and re-emergence of infectious agents, parasites and environmental contaminants; and maintenance of biodiversity and ecosystem functions as they sustain the health of plant and animal communities including humans.

During the past ten years, new tools and institutional initiatives for assessing and monitoring ecological health concerns have emerged: landscape epidemiology, disease ecological modeling and web-based analytics. New types of integrated ecological health assessment are being deployed; these efforts incorporate environmental indicator studies with specific biomedical diagnostic tools. Other innovations include the development of non-invasive physiological and behavioral monitoring techniques; the adaptation of modern molecular biological and biomedical techniques; the design of population level disease monitoring strategies; the creation of ecosystem-based health and sentinel species surveillance approaches; and the adaptation of health monitoring systems for appropriate developing country situations. New Directions of Conservation Medicine: Applied Cases of Ecological Health addresses these issues with relevant case studies and detailed applied examples. New Directions of Conservation Medicine challenges the notion that human health is an isolated concern removed from the bounds of ecology and species interactions. Human health, animal health, and ecosystem health are moving closer together and at some point, it will be inconceivable that there was ever a clear division.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780199731473
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Publication date: 06/08/2012
Edition description: New Edition
Pages: 672
Product dimensions: 7.20(w) x 10.00(h) x 1.40(d)

About the Author

Alonso Aguirre is Executive Director of the Smithsonian-Mason Global Conservation Studies Program based at Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute in Front Royal, and Associate Professor at the Department of Environmental Science and Policy in George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia. He cofounded the emerging discipline of Conservation Medicine and has over 20 years of experience in conservation of biodiversity wildlife medicine and management in over 23 countries.

Rick Ostfeld is Senior Scientist and Animal Ecologist at the Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies, Millbrook, New York.

Peter Daszak is President of EcoHealth Alliance (formerly Wildlife Trust). He is a leader in the field of conservation medicine and a respected disease ecologist.

Table of Contents

Foreword: Planet Doctors

Part One: Conservation Medicine: Ecological Health in Practice

1. Conservation Medicine: Ontogeny of an Emerging Discipline
A. Alonso Aguirre, Gary M. Tabor, and Richard S. Ostfeld

2. Ecohealth: Connecting Ecology, Health, and Sustainability
Bruce A. Wilcox, A. Alonso Aguirre, and Pierre Horwitz

3. One Health, One Medicine
Laura H. Kahn, Thomas P. Monath, Bob H. Bokma, E. Paul Gibbs, and A. Alonso Aguirre

4. Biodiversity and Human Health
Aaron Bernstein

5. An Ecosystem Service of Biodiversity: The Protection of Human Health Against Infectious Disease
Felicia Keesing and Richard S. Ostfeld

6. Parasite Conservation, Conservation Medicine and Ecosystem Health
Andres Gomez, Elizabeth S. Nichols, and Susan L. Perkins

7. Stress and Immunosuppression as Factors in the Decline and Extinction of Wildlife Populations: Concepts, Evidence, and Challenges
Heribert Hofer and Marion L. East

Part Two: Anthropogenic Change and Conservation Medicine

8. Climate Change and Infectious Disease Dynamics
Raina K. Plowright, Paul C. Cross, Gary M. Tabor, Emily Almberg, Leslie Bienen, and Peter J. Hudson

9. Wildlife Health in a Changing North: A Model for Global Environmental Change
Morten Tryland, Susan Kutz, and Patricia Curry

10. Habitat Fragmentation and Infectious Disease Ecology
Gerardo Suzan, Fernando Esponda, Roberto Carrasco-Hernandez, and A. Alonso Aguirre

11. Wildlife Trade and the Spread of Disease
Katherine F. Smith, Lisa M. Schloegel, and Gail E. Rosen

12. Bushmeat and Infectious Disease Emergence
Matt hew LeBreton, Brian L. Pike, Karen E. Saylors, Joseph Le Doux Diffo, Joseph N. Fair, Anne W. Rimoin, Nancy Ortiz, Cyrille F. Djoko, Ubald Tamoufe, and Nathan D. Wolfe

13. Human Migration, Border Controls, and Infectious Disease Emergence
Anne M. Alexander, David C. Finnoff , and Jason F. Shogren

Part Three: Emerging Infectious Diseases and Conservation Medicine

14. Are Bats Exceptional Viral Reservoirs?
Kevin J. Olival, Jonathan H. Epstein, Lin-Fa Wang, Hume E. Field, and Peter Daszak

15. SARS: A Case Study for Factors Driving Disease Emergence
Wolfgang Preiser

16. H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza: Breaking the Rules in Disease Emergence
Thijs Kuiken and Timm Harder

17. Bartonellosis: An Emerging Disease of Humans, Domestic Animals, and Wildlife
Ricardo G. Maggi, Craig A. Harms, and Edward B. Breitschwerdt

18. Brucella ceti and Brucella pinnipedialis Infections in Marine Mammals
Jacques Godfroid, Ingebj rg Helena Nymo, Morten Tryland, Axel Cloeckaert, Thierry Jauniaux, Adrian M. Whatmore, Edgardo Moreno, and Geoffrey Foster

19. Infectious Cancers in Wildlife
Hamish McCallum and Menna Jones

20. From Protozoan Infection in Monarch Butterflies to Colony Collapse Disorder in Bees: Are Emerging Infectious Diseases Proliferating in the Insect World?
Rebecca Bartel and Sonia Altizer

21. Fungal Diseases in Neotropical Forests Disturbed by Humans
Julieta Benitez-Malvido

22. Emerging Infectious Diseases in Fisheries and Aquaculture
E. Scott Philip Weber III

23. Southern Sea Otters as Sentinels for Land-Sea Pathogens and Pollutants
David A. Jessup and Melissa A. Miller

Part Four: Ecotoxicology and Conservation Medicine

24. Ecotoxicology: Bridging Wildlife, Humans, and Ecosystems
Jeffrey M. Levengood and Val R. Beasley

25. Wildlife Toxicology: Environmental Contaminants and Their National and International Regulation
K. Christiana Grim, Anne Fairbrother, and Barnett A. Rattner

26. Marine Biotoxins: Emergence of Harmful Algal Blooms as Health Threats to Marine Wildlife
Spencer E. Fire and Frances M. Van Dolah

27. Beluga from the St. Lawrence Estuary: A Case Study of Cancer and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons
Daniel Martineau

Part Five: Place-Based Conservation Medicine

28. Sense and Serendipity: Conservation and Management of Bison in Canada
Margo J. Pybus and Todd K. Shury

29. Pathogens, Parks, and People: The Role of Bovine Tuberculosis in South African Conservation
Claire Geoghegan

30. Disease Ecology and Conservation of Ungulates, Wild Rabbits, and the Iberian Lynx in the Mediterranean Forest
Fernando Martinez, Guillermo Lopez, and Christian Gortazar

31. The Kibale EcoHealth Project: Exploring Connections Among Human Health, Animal Health, and Landscape Dynamics in Western Uganda
Tony L. Goldberg, Sarah B. Paige, and Colin A. Chapman

32. Conservation Medicine in Brazil: Case Studies of Ecological Health in Practice
Paulo Rogerio Mangini, Rodrigo Silva Pinto Jorge, Marcelo Renan de Deus Santos, Claudia Filoni, Carlos Eduardo da Silva Verona, Alessandra Nava, Maria Fernanda Vianna Marvulo, and Jean Carlos Ramos Silva

33. Linking Conservation of Biodiversity and Culture with Sustainable Health and Wellness: Th e Itzamma Model and Global Implications for Healing Across Cultures
Todd J. Pesek, Victor Cal, Kevin Knight, and John Arnason

34. Biological Diversity and Human Health: Using Plants and Traditional Ethnomedical Knowledge to Improve Public Health and Conservation Programs in Micronesia
Michael J. Balick, Katherine Herrera, Francisca Sohl, Wayne Law, Roberta A. Lee, and William C. Raynor

Part Six: Applied Techniques of Conservation Medicine

35. Human Health in the Biodiversity Hotspots: Applications of Geographic Information System Technology and Implications for Conservation
Larry J. Gorenflo

36. Determining When Parasites of Amphibians Are Conservation Threats to their Hosts: Methods and Perspectives
Trenton W. J. Garner, Cheryl J. Briggs, Jon Bielby, and Matthew C. Fisher

37. Strategies for Wildlife Disease Surveillance
Jonathan M. Sleeman, Christopher J. Brand, and Scott D. Wright

38. Wildlife Health Monitoring Systems in North America: From Sentinel Species to Public Policy
Michelle M. Willette, Julia B. Ponder, Dave L. McRuer, and Edward E. Clark, Jr.

39. Epidemiologic Investigation of Infectious Pathogens in Marine Mammals: The Importance of Serum Banks and Statistical Analysis
A. Alonso Aguirre, Melinda K. Rostal, B. Zimmerman, and Thomas J. Keefe

40. Sorta Situ : The New Reality of Management Conditions for Wildlife Populations in the Absence of "Wild" Spaces
Barbara A. Wolfe, Roberto F. Aguilar, A. Alonso Aguirre, Glenn H. Olsen, and Evan S Blumer

41. Modeling Population Viability and Extinction Risk in the Presence of Parasitism
Patrick Foley and Janet E. Foley

42. Using Mathematical Models in a Unifi ed Approach to Predicting the Next Emerging Infectious Disease
Tiffany L. Bogich, Kevin J. Olival, Parviez R. Hosseini, Carlos Zambrana-Torrelio, Elizabeth Loh, Sebastian Funk, Ilana L. Brito, Jonathan H. Epstein, John S. Brownstein, Damien O. Joly, Marc A. Levy, Kate E. Jones,
Stephen S. Morse, A. Alonso Aguirre, William B. Karesh, Jonna A. K. Mazet, and Peter Daszak


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