With the 2008 MLA Update edition, The New McGraw-Hill Handbook continues to set the bar for contemporary handbooks. Writing and research have changed dramatically since the first hardcover handbooks appeared. Today’s students don’t rely on pens or typewriters: they use computers to write. They don’t just do research: they find their way through a maze of online information. They don’t just read print: they analyze visuals. They don’t just come to class: they participate in an online learning community. These changes have put new demands on composition courses. With its focus on writing in today’s environment, integrated coverage of technology and visual rhetoric, and hallmark coverage of writing across the curriculum, The New McGraw-Hill Handbook has been designed to provide today’s students with a current, comprehensive resource for writing in college and beyond. With the CourseSmart eTextbook version of this title, students can save up to 50% off the cost of a print book, reduce their impact on the environment, and access powerful web tools for learning. Faculty can also review and compare the full text online without having to wait for a print desk copy. CourseSmart is an online eTextbook, which means users need to be connected to the internet in order to access. Students can also print sections of the book for maximum portability.
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About the Author
Elaine P. Maimon is President of Governors State University in the south suburbs of Chicago, where she is also Professor of English. Previously she was Chancellor of the University of Alaska Anchorage, Provost (Chief Campus Officer) at Arizona State University West, and Vice President of Arizona State University as a whole. In the 1970s, she initiated and then directed the Beaver College writing-across-the-curriculum program, one of the first WAC programs in the nation. A founding Executive Board member of the National Council of Writing Program Administrators (WPA), she has directed national institutes to improve the teaching of writing and to disseminate the principles of writing across the curriculum. With a PhD in English from the University of Pennsylvania, where she later helped to create the Writing Across the University (WATU) program, she has also taught and served as an academic administrator at Haverford College, Brown University, and Queens College.
Janice Haney Peritz is an Associate Professor of English who has taught college writing for more than thirty years, first at Stanford University, where she received her PhD in 1978, and then at the University of Texas at Austin; Beaver College; and Queens College, City University of New York. From 1989 to 2002, she directed the Composition Program at Queens College, where in 1996, she also initiated the college’s writing-across-the-curriculum program and the English Department’s involvement with the Epiphany Project and cyber-composition. She also worked with a group of CUNY colleagues to develop The Write Site, an online learning center, and more recently directed the CUNY Honors College at Queens College for three years. Currently, she is back in the English Department doing what she loves most: research, writing, and full-time classroom teaching of writing, literature, and culture.
Kathleen Blake Yancey is the Kellogg W. Hunt Professor of English and Director of the Graduate Program in Rhetoric and Composition at Florida State University. Past President of the Council of Writing Program Administrators (WPA) and Past Chair of the Conference on College Composition and Communication (CCCC), she is President of the National Council of Teachers of English (NCTE). In addition, she co-directs the Inter/National Coalition on Electronic Portfolio Research. She has directed several institutes focused on electronic portfolios and on service learning and reflection, and with her colleagues in English Education, she is working on developing a program in new literacies. Previously, she has taught at UNC Charlotte and at Clemson University, where she directed the Pearce Center for Professional Communication and created the Class of 1941 Studio for Student Communication, both of which are dedicated to supporting communication across the curriculum.
Kathleen Blake Yancey
The Florida State University
Department of English
224 Williams Building
Tallahassee, FL 32306-1580
Phone: 850 645 6896
Table of Contents
Part One: Writing and Designing PapersChapter 1: Learning Across the Curriculum1a. Use Writing to Learn as You Learn to Write1b. Explore Ways of Learning in a multimedia world1c. Use strategies for learning when English is your second language. Chapter 2: Understanding Assignments2a. Recognize that writing is a process.2b. Find an appropriate topic.2c. Be clear about the purpose of your assignment.2d. Use the appropriate genre.2e. Ask questions about your audience.2f. Determine the appropriate tone.2g. Meet early to discuss coauthored projects.2h. Gather the tools you need to get started.Chapter 3: Planning and Shaping the Whole Essay3a. Explore your ideas.3b. Decide on a thesis. 3c. Plan a structure that suits your assignment.3d. Consider using visuals.Chapter 4: Drafting Paragraphs and Thinking about Visuals4a. Use online tools for drafting.4b. Write focused paragraphs.4c. Write paragraphs that have a clear organization.4d. Develop ideas and use visuals strategically.4e. Integrate visuals effectively.4f. Craft an introduction that establishes your purpose.4g. Conclude by answering "so what?"Chapter 5: Revising and Editing5a. Get comments from readers.5b. Use online tools for revising.5c. Focus on the purpose of your writing.5d. Make sure you have a strong thesis.5e. Review the structure of your paper as a whole.5f. Revise your essay for paragraph development, paragraph unity, and coherence.5g. Revise visuals. 5h. Edit sentences. 5i. Proofread carefully before you turn in your paper.5j. Use resources available on your campus, on the Internet, and in your community.5k. Learn from one student’s revisions.Chapter 6: Designing and Proofreading Documents and Visuals6a. Consider audience and purpose when making design decisions.6b. Use the toolbars available in your word-processing program.6c. Think intentionally about design.6d. Compile a print or electronic portfolio that presents your work to your advantage.
Part Two: Common Assignments Across the CurriculumChapter 7: Reading, Thinking, Writing: the Critical Connection7a. Recognize that critical reading is a process.7b. Preview the text or visual.7c. Read and record your initial impressions.7d. Reread using annotation and summary to analyze and interpret.7e. Synthesize your observations in a critical response paper.Chapter 8:Informative Reports8a. Understand the assignment.8b. Approach writing an informative report as a process.8c. Know how to write an informative report in the social sciences.8d. Know how to write reviews of the literature.8e. Know how to write informative papers in the sciences.8f. Know how to write lab reports.8g. Informative reports in the humanities.Chapter 9: Interpretive Analyses and Writing about Literature9a. Understand the assignment.9b. Approach writing an interpretive analysis as a process.9c. Learn to write interpretive papers in the humanities.9d. Write a literary interpretation of a poem.9e. Write a literary interpretation of a work of fiction.9f. Write a literary interpretation of a play.9g. Learn to write interpretive papers in the social sciences.9h. Know how to write case studies9i. Learn to write interpretive papers in the sciences.Chapter 10: Arguments10a. Understand the assignment.10b. Learn how to evaluate an argument.10c. Approach writing your own argument as a process.10d. Arguments in the social sciences.10e. Arguments in the humanities.10f. Arguments in the sciences.Chapter 11: Personal essays, Lab Reports, and Case Studies11a. Understand the assignment.11b. Approach writing a personal essay as a process.Chapter 12: Essay Exams12a. Prepare to take an essay exam.12b. Learn strategies for answering essay exams.Chapter 13: Oral Reports and Presentations13a. Plan and shape your oral presentation.13b. Draft your presentation with the rhetorical situation in mind.13c. Prepare for your presentation.Chapter 14: Multimedia Writing14a. Learn about the tools for creating multimedia texts.14b. Combine text and image with a word processing program to analyze images.14c. Use a word processing program to create a hypertext essay.14d. Use presentation software to create multimedia presentations.14e. Create a web site.14f. Create and interact with weblogs.
Part Three: ResearchingChapter 15: Understanding Research15a. Understand the purpose of primary and secondary research.15b. Recognize the connection between research and college writing.15c. Choose and interesting research question for critical inquiry.15d. Understanding the research assignment.15e. Create a research plan.Chapter 16: Finding and Managing Print and Online Sources16a. Use the library in person and online.16b. Consult various kinds of sources.16c. Understand keywords and keyword searches.16d. Use print and online reference works for general information.16e. Use print indexes and online databases to find journal articles and other periodicals.16f. Use search engines and subject directories to find sources on the internet.16g. Use your library’s online catalog or card catalog to find books.16h. Take advantage of printed and online government documents. 16i. Explore online communication.Chapter 17: Finding and Designing Effective Visuals17a. Find quantitative data and display it visually.17b. Search for appropriate images in online collections, with an internet search engine, or in books and journals and other print sources.Chapter 18: Evaluating Sources18a. Question print sources.18b. Question Internet sources.18c. Evaluate a source’s arguments.Chapter 19: Doing Research in the Archive, Field, and Lab19a. Adhere to ethical principles when doing primary research.19b. Prepare yourself before undertaking archival research.19c. Plan your field research carefully.19d. Keep a notebook when doing lab research.Chapter 20: Plagiarism, Copyright, and Intellectual Property20a. Learn how plagiarism relates to copyright and intellectual property.20b. Avoid plagiarism.20c. Use copyrighted materials fairly.Chapter 21: Working with Sources and Avoiding Plagiarism21a. Maintain a working bibliography.21b. Take notes on your sources.21c. Integrating quotations, paraphrases, and summaries properly and effectively.21d. Synthesis: Take stock of what you have learned.Chapter 22: Writing the Paper22a. Plan and draft your paper.22b. Revise your draft.22c. Document your sources.22d. Present and publish your work.Chapter 23: Discipline-Specific Resources in the Library and on the Internet
Part Four: Documenting Across the CurriculumChapter 24: MLA Documentation Style24a. The elements of MLA documentation style24b. MLA style: In-text citations24c. MLA Style: List of works Cited24d. MLA style: Explanatory notes and acknowledgments24e. MLA style: Paper Format24f. Student paper in MLA styleChapter 25: APA Documentation Style25a. the elements of APA documentation style25b. APA style: In-text citations25c. APA style: References25d. APA style: Paper format25e Student paper in APA styleChapter 26: Chicago and CSE Documentation StylesCHICAGO DOCUMENTATION STYLE26a. Chicago style: In-text citations and notes26b. Chicago style: Bibliography 26c. Sample Chicago-style notes and bibliography entries26d. Sample from a student paper in Chicago styleCSE DOCUMENTATION STYLES26e. CSE name-year style: In-text citations26f. CSE name-year style: List of References26g. Sample references list: CSE name-year system26h. CSE number style: In-text citations26i. CSE number style: List of references26j. Sample reference list: CSE number system
Part Five: Writing Beyond CollegeChapter 27: Service Learning and Community-Service Writing27a. Address the community on behalf of your organization.27b. Design brochures, newsletters, and posters with an eye to purpose and audience.Chapter 28: Letters to Raise Awareness and Share ConcernChapter 29: Writing to Get and Keep a Job29a. Explore internship possibilities, and keep a portfolio of career-related writing.29b. Keep your résumé up-to-date and available on a computer disk.29c. Write an application letter that highlights the information on your résumé and demonstrates that your skills match the job you are seeking.29d. Prepare in advance for the job interview.29e. Apply what you learn in college to your on-the-job writing.29f. Write as a Consumer.
Part Six: Grammar BasicsTest Yourself: Grammar BasicsChapter 30: The Parts of Speech30a. Verbs30b. Nouns30c. Pronouns30d. Adjectives30e. Adverbs30f. Prepositions30g. Conjunctions30h. InterjectionsChapter 31: Sentence Basics31a. Sentence purpose31b. Subjects31c. Predicates: Verbs and their objects or complements31d. What are phrases and clauses?31e. Noun phrases and verb phrases31f. Verbals and verbal phrases31g. Appositive phrases31h. Absolute phrases31i. Dependent clauses31j. Sentence structures
Part Seven: Editing for Grammar ConventionsTest yourself: Grammar ConventionsChapter 32: Sentence Fragments32a. Learn to identify sentence fragments.32b. Learn how to edit sentence fragments.32c. Connect a phrase fragment to another sentence, or add the missing elements. 32d. Connect a dependent-clause fragment to another sentence, or make it into a sentence by eliminating or changing the subordinating word.Chapter 33: Comma Splices and Run-on Sentences33a. Learn how to identify comma splices and run-on sentences.33b. Learn five ways to edit comma splices and run-on sentences.33c. Join the two clauses with a comma and a coordinating conjunction such as and, but, or, nor, for, so, or yet.33d. Join the two clauses with a semicolon.33e. Separate the clauses into two sentences.33f. Turn one of the independent clauses into a dependent clause.33g. Transform the two clauses into one independent clause.Chapter 34: Subject-Verb Agreement34a. Learn how to identify problems with subject-verb agreement.34b. Learn to edit errors in subject-verb agreement. 34c. Do not lose sight of the subject when other words separate it from the verb.34d. Learn to distinguish plural from singular compound subjects.34e. Treat most collective nouns—nouns like audience, family, and committee—as singular subjects.34f. Treat most indefinite subjects—subjects like everybody, no one, each, all, and none—as singular.34g. Make sure that the subject and verb agree when the subject comes after the verb.34h. Make sure that the verb agrees with its subject, not the subject complement.34i. Who, which, and that (relative pronouns) take verbs that agree with the subject they replace.34j. Gerund phrases (phrases beginning with an –ing verb treated as a noun) take the singular form of the verb when they are subjects.Chapter 35: Problems with Verbs35a. Learn the principal forms of regular and irregular verbs.35b. Learn to identify and edit problems with common irregular verbs.35c. Distinguish between lay and lie, sit and set, and rise and raise.35d. Do not forget to add an –s or –es ending to the verb when it is necessary.35e. Do not forget to add a –d or –ed ending to the verb when it is necessary. 35f. Make sure your verbs are complete.35g. Use verb tenses accurately.35h. Use the past perfect tense to indicate an action completed at a specific time or before another event.35i. Use the present tense for literary events, scientific facts, and introductions to quotations.35j. Make sure infinitives and participles fit with the tense of the main verb.35k. Use the subjunctive mood for wishes, requests, and conjecture.35l. Choose the active voice unless a special situation calls for the passive.Chapter 36: Problems with Pronouns36a. Learn to identify problems with pronoun case.36b. Learn to edit for pronoun case.36c. Use the correct pronouns in compound structures.36d. Use the correct pronoun in subject complements. 36e. Use the correct pronoun in appositives.36f. Use either we or us before a noun, depending on the noun’s function. 36g. Use the correct pronoun in comparisons with than or as.36h. Use the correct form when the pronoun is the subject or the object of an infinitive.36i. Use the possessive case in front of a gerund.36j. Distinguish between who and whom.36k. Learn to identify and edit problems with pronoun-antecedent agreement.36l. Choose the right pronoun to agree with an indefinite pronoun antecedent. 36m. Avoid gender bias with indefinite pronoun and generic noun antecedents. 36n. Treat most collective nouns as singular.36o. Choose the right pronoun for a compound antecedent.36p. Learn to identify and edit problems with pronoun reference.36q. Avoid ambiguous pronoun references.36r. Watch out for implied pronoun references. 36s. Keep track of pronoun reference in paragraphs.36t. Use who, whom, and whose, not that or which, to refer to people.Chapter 37: Problems with Adjectives and Adverbs37a. Learn to identify and edit problems with adjectives and adverbs.37b. Use adjectives to modify nouns or pronouns.37c. Use nouns as adjectives sparingly.37d. Use adverbs to modify verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs.37e. Do not use an adjective when an adverb is needed.37f. Use adjectives after linking verbs to describe the subject.37g. Use positive, comparative, and superlative adjectives and adverbs correctly.37h. Avoid double negatives.Checklist: Writing Grammatically
Part Eight: Editing for ClarityTest Yourself: Editing for ClarityChapter 38: Wordy Sentences38a. Learn to identify and edit wordiness.38b. Eliminate wordy phrase and empty words.38c. Eliminate unnecessary repetition.38d. Make your sentences straightforward.38e. Reduce clauses and phrases.38f. Combine sentences.Chapter 39: Missing Words39a. Recognizing and editing problems with missing words.39b. Add words needed to make compound structures complete and clear.39c. Include that when it is needed for clarity.39d. Make comparisons clear.39e. Add articles (a, an, the) where necessary.Chapter 40: Mixed Constructions40a. Identifying and editing mixed constructions.40b. Make sure predicated fit their subjects.Chapter 41: Confusing Shifts41a. Learn how to identify and edit confusing shifts.41b. Make your point of view consistent in person and number.41c. Keep your verb tenses consistent.41d. Avoid unnecessary shifts in mood and voice.41e. Be alert to awkward shifts between direct and indirect quotations and questions.Chapter 42: Faulty Parallelism42a. Learn to identify and edit faulty parallelism.42b. Make items in a series parallel.42c. Make paired ideas parallel.42d. Repeat function words as needed to keep parallels clear.42e. Make the items in outlines, headings, and lists. Chapter 43: Misplaced and Dangling Modifiers43a. Learn to identify and edit misplaced modifiers.43b. Put modifiers close to the words they modify.43c. Clarify ambiguous modifiers.43d. Move disruptive modifiers.43e. Avoid splitting infinitives.43f. Learn to identify and edit dangling modifiers.Chapter 44: Coordination and Subordination44a. Learn to identify coordination and subordination and use them effectively.44b. Use coordination to combine ideas of equal importance.44c. Avoid faulty or excessive coordination.44d. Use subordination for ideas of unequal importance. 44e. Avoid faulty or excessive subordination.44f. Use coordination and subordination to combine short, choppy sentences.Chapter 45: Sentence Variety45a. Vary your sentence openings.45b. Vary the length and structure of your sentences.45c. Include a few cumulative and periodic sentences.45d. Try an occasional inversion, rhetorical question, or exclamation.45e. Repeat key words for emphasis.Chapter 46: Active Verbs46a. Consider alternatives to some be verbs.46b. Prefer the active voice.Checklist: Writing Clearly
Part Nine: Editing for Word ChoiceChapter 47: Dictionaries and Vocabulary47a. Make using the dictionary a habit.47b. Consult a thesaurus for words that have similar meanings.47c. Read for pleasure.47d. Learn the meanings of new words by their context.47e. Learn new words by analyzing their parts.Chapter 48: Appropriate Language48a. In college writing, avoid slang, regional expressions, and nonstandard English. 48b. Use an appropriate level of formality.48c. Avoid jargon.48d. Avoid most euphemisms and all doublespeak.48e. Do not use biased or sexist language. Chapter 49: Exact Language49a. Avoid misusing words.49b. Choose words with suitable connotations.49c. Include specific and concrete words.49d. Use standard idioms.49e. Create suitable figures of speech.49f. Avoid clichésChapter 50: Glossary of UsageChecklist: Writing with Appropriate and Exact Language
Part Ten: Sentence PunctuationTest Yourself: Sentence PunctuationChapter 51: Commas51a. Place a comma before a coordinating conjunction that joins two independent clauses.51b. Use commas between items in a series.51c. Use commas between coordinate adjectives.51d. Use a comma after an introductory word group that is not the subject of the sentence.51e. Use a comma or commas to set off nonessential (nonrestrictive) elements.51f. Use a comma or commas with transitional expressions, parenthetical expressions, contrasting comments, and absolute phrases.51g. Use a comma or commas to set off words of direct address, yes and no, mild interjections, and tag sentences.51h. Use a comma or commas to separate a direct quotation from the phrase that signals it.51i. Use commas with parts of dates and addresses, with people’s titles, in numbers, and in parts of correspondence.51j. Use a comma to take the place of an omitted word or phrase or to prevent misreading.51k. Do not use commas to separate major elements in an independent clause.51l. Do not use commas to separate compound word groups unless they are independent clauses.51m. Do not place commas after prepositions or conjunctions.51n. Do not use commas to set off restrictive modifiers, appositives, or slightly parenthetical words or phrases.51o. Do not use a comma after the phrase that begins an inverted sentence.51p. Do not place a comma before the first or after the last item in a series. Do not place a comma between an adjective and a noun, even in a series of coordinate adjectives.51q. Do not use a comma to repeat the function of other punctuation.Chapter 52: Semicolons52a. Use a semicolon to join independent clauses.52b. Use semicolons with transitional expressions that connect independent clauses.52c. Use care when placing a semicolon before a conjunction.52d. Use a semicolon to separate items in a series when the items contain commas.52e. Edit to correct common semicolon errors.Chapter 53: Colons 53a. Use a colon after a complete sentence to introduce a list, an appositive, or a quotation.53b. Use a colon when a second closely related independent clause elaborates on the first one.53c. Use colons in business letters, to indicate ratios, to indicate times of day, for city and publisher citations in bibliographies, and to separate titles and subtitles. 53d. Edit to eliminate unnecessary colons.Chapter 54: Quotation Marks54a. Distinguish between direct and indirect quotations.54b. Use quotation marks to set off brief direct quotations and lines of dialogue.54c. Use single quotation marks, slashes, ellipses, and brackets with direct quotations as required.54d. Set off long quotations in indented blocks rather than using quotation marks.54e. Use single quotation marks to enclose a quotation within a quotation.54f. Use quotation marks to enclose titles of short works such as articles, poems, and stories.54g. Use quotation marks to indicate that a word or phrase is being used in a special way.54h. Place punctuation marks within or outside quotation marks, as convention and your meaning require.54i. Edit to correct common errors in using quotation marks. Chapter 55: Dashes, Parentheses, and Other Punctuation Marks55a. Use the dash provided by your word-processing program, or form it by typing two hyphens.55b. Use a dash to highlight an explanation or list that begins or ends a sentence.55c. Use a dash or two dashes to insert—and highlight—a nonessential phrase or independent clause within a sentence.55d. Use a dash or dashes to indicate a sudden break in tone, thought, or speech.55e. Do not overuse dashes.55f. Use parentheses to enclose supplementary information.55g. Use parentheses to enclose numbers or letters, according to convention.55h. Learn the conventions for capitalization and punctuation with parentheses.55i. When quoting, use brackets to set off material that is not part of the original quotation. 55j. Use ellipses to indicate that words have been omitted from a quotation or that a thought is incomplete.55k. Use a slash to show line breaks in quoted poetry, to separate options or combinations, and in electronic addresses.Chapter 56: Periods, Question Marks, and Exclamation Points56a. Use a period after most statements, indirect questions, polite requests, and mild commands.56b. Use a period in abbreviations according to convention.56c. Do not use a period at the end of a sentence within a sentence.56d. Use a question mark after a direct question.56e. Use exclamation points sparingly to convey shock, surprise, or a forceful command.56f. Place a question mark or exclamation point within a sentence if your meaning requires it.56g. Do not add a comma or another end mark after a period, question mark, or exclamation point.56h. Make sure that the end mark concludes a complete sentence.Checklist: Editing for Punctuation
Part Eleven: Mechanics and SpellingTest Yourself: Mechanics and SpellingChapter 57: Capitalization57a. Capitalize proper nouns (names), words derived from them, brand names, certain abbreviations, and call letters.57b. Capitalize a person’s title when it appears before a proper name but not when it is used alone.57c. Capitalize names of areas and regions.57d. Follow standard practice for capitalizing names of races, ethnic groups, and sacred things.57e. Capitalize titles of works of literature, works of art, musical compositions, documents, and courses.57f. Capitalize the first word of a sentence.57g. Capitalize the first word of a quoted sentence but not the first word of an indirect quotation.57h. Capitalizing the first word of an independent clause after a colon or in a series of short questions is optional.57i. Capitalize the first word of each item in a formal outline.57j. Capitalizing the first word of each item in a list is optional, unless the item is a sentence.57k. Capitalize the first word in the greeting and closing of a letter.Chapter 58: Abbreviations, Acronyms, and Symbols58a. Abbreviate familiar titles that always precede or follow a person’s name.58b. Use abbreviations only when you know your readers will understand them. 58c. Abbreviate words typically used with times, dates, and numerals, as well as units of measurement in charts and graphs. 58d. Use abbreviations in mailing addresses.58e. Become familiar with abbreviations used in research citations. 58f. Avoid Latin abbreviations in formal writing. 58g. Avoid inappropriate abbreviations and symbols.Chapter 59: Numbers59a. In nontechnical writing, spell out numbers up to one hundred and round numbers greater than one hundred.59b. In technical and business writing, use numerals for exact measurements and all numbers greater than ten.59c. Always spell out a number that begins a sentence.59d. Use numerals for dates, times of day, addresses, and similar kinds of conventional quantitative information.Chapter 60: Italics and Underlining60a. Italicize (underline) titles of lengthy works or separate publications. 60b. Italicize (underline) the names of ships, trains, aircraft, and spaceships.60c. Italicize (underline) foreign terms.60d. Italicize (underline) scientific names.60e. Italicize (underline) words, letters, and numbers referred to as themselves.60f. Use italics (underlining) sparingly for emphasis.Chapter 61: Apostrophes61a. Use apostrophes to indicate possession.61b. Use apostrophes to form contractions.61c. Distinguish between contractions and possessive pronouns.61d. An apostrophe can be used with –s to form plural numbers, letters, abbreviations, and words used as words.61e. Watch out for common misuses of the apostrophe.Chapter 62: Hyphens62a. Use hyphens to form compound words and to avoid confusion.62b. Use hyphens to join two or more words to create compound adjective or noun forms.62c. Use hyphens to spell out fractions and compound numbers.62d. Use a hyphen to attach some prefixes and suffixes.62e. Use hyphens to divide words at the ends of lines.Chapter 63: Spelling63a. Learn the rules that generally hold for spelling, as well as their exceptions.63b. Learn to distinguish words pronounced alike but spelled differently.63c. Check for commonly misspelled words.Checklist: Editing for Mechanics and Spelling
Part Twelve: Guide for Multilingual WritersChapter 64: Language Basics64a. Learn the characteristics of English nouns and their modifiers.64b. Learn the characteristics of English pronouns.64c. Learn the characteristics of English verb phrases.Chapter 65: Sentence Structure65a. Learn the requirements of English word order.65b. Learn to use subordinating and coordinating words correctlyChapter 66: Error Analysis66a. Be alert to native language interference66b. Develop a self-editing checklist
Part Thirteen: Further Resources for LearningTimeline of World HistorySelected Terms from across the CurriculumWorld MapQuick Reference for Multilingual Writers
Back MatterGlossary of Key TermsAnswers to Test Yourself questionsCreditsIndexIndex for Multilingual WritersEditing Symbols and Abbreviations