Award-winningfilm historian Patrick McGilligan follows hisacclaimed biographies of Alfred Hitchcock and Oscar Micheauxwith a revelatory look at the life of Nicholas Ray, the troubled director of Ina Lonely Place, We Can’t GoHome Again, and Rebel Without a Cause. McGilligancharts the cerebral struggles, astonishing adventures, and artistic triumphsthat defined Ray’s life, including his Hollywood collaborations with HumphreyBogart, Robert Mitchum, James Cagney, and James Dean;his love affairs with Marilyn Monroe, Jayne Mansfield, ZsaZsa Gabor, and Gloria Grahame; his partnerships withactivist Abbie Hoffman, pornography starlet MarilynChambers, photographer Wim Wenders;and more. Celebrating, contextualizing, and examining Ray’s life and work, McGilligandelivers a milestone of film history and offers a captivating look at one ofclassic cinema’s most colorful figures.
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About the Author
Patrick McGilligan is the author of Alfred Hitchcock: A Life in Darkness and Light; Fritz Lang: The Nature of the Beast; and George Cukor: A Double Life; and books on the lives of directors Nicholas Ray, Robert Altman, and Oscar Micheaux, and actors James Cagney, Jack Nicholson, and Clint Eastwood. He also edited the acclaimed five-volume Backstory series of interviews with Hollywood screenwriters and (with Paul Buhle), the definitive Tender Comrades: A Backstory of the Hollywood Blacklist. He lives in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, not far from Kenosha, where Orson Welles was born.
Read an Excerpt
Nicholas RayThe Glorious Failure of an American Director
By Patrick McGilligan
IT BooksCopyright © 2011 Patrick McGilligan
All right reserved.
Chapter OneNicholas Ray was a kind of human jigsaw puzzle, the pieces of his mystery
scattered and lost over time.
Many of his films were haunted by bruised young people, threatened,
damaged, or twisted by events beyond their control. Their suffering often
begins in youth, its source a secret buried there.
Mementos of childhood crop up in Ray's films like missing pieces of
the puzzle. Sports trophies line the top of a dresser in the room of an
embittered detective in On Dangerous Ground. A broken-down rodeo
champion finds a rodeo handbill, cap pistol, and tobacco-can bank squirreled
away in a crawl space under his old homestead in The Lusty Men. ("I was
looking for something I thought I lost," he tells an old-timer carrying a
shotgun who interrupts his search.) Sprawled drunkenly on the ground,
James Dean pulls a scrap-paper blankie over a cymbal-banging monkey
toy during the opening credits of Rebel Without a Cause. ("Can I keep it?"
he pleads when arrested.)
Even so, the source of hurt is private and vague and remotenot, as in
the case of another Wisconsin filmmaker, as knowable as a certain
In his films, Ray tended to load the blame on mother and father figures.
The parents in Rebel Without a Cause are fundamentally clueless. The
drug addicted father in Bigger Than Life tries to use a scissors to sacrifice
his young son to God. Fathers are faulted the most in Ray's films, while
mothers linger in the shadows, blurry and complicit.
His unorthodox "heroes" (the drug-addicted father is one) are destined
to fail. The obstacles they face are nothing compared to their own
neuroses. They are burdened above all by their integrity.
Ray's intense, searching visual style mirrored his personal struggles.
His best filmsa list that would arguably include They Live by Night, In
a Lonely Place, On Dangerous Ground, The Lusty Men, Johnny Guitar, Rebel
Without a Cause, Bigger Than Life, Bitter Victory, and Party Girlcan't
easily be categorized. They owe something to Hollywood, where he never
quite fit in, and everything else to his iconoclastic sensibility. First to the
influential French critics of Cahiers du Cinéma and Positif in the 1950s,
and to every succeeding generation of film fans since, Ray has become a
symbol of artistic purity and tragic flaws: a test case of auteurist worship.
In his life, as in his films, everything began at homehope and trouble,
strength and fissures.
Home sweet home for Nicholas Ray was an all American city that was
rugged and beautiful, as ideal on the surface as an airbrushed portrait of
the director at the peak of his fame.
Christened as a fur-trading post in 1841, La Crosse was settled on
the eastern banks of the Mississippi River, at the confluence of the Black
and La Crosse Rivers along what would become the border of Wisconsin
(which became a state in 1848) and Minnesota (which followed in 1858).
From a handful of houses, the town swiftly multiplied into a booming
gateway to the West for merchants and adventurers. Germans and Norwegians
swarmed in on packed trains and cattle cars from Milwaukee. By 1880, La
Crosse had grown into the fourth-largest community in Wisconsin.
"Here is a town," declared the former steamboat pilot Samuel Clemens.
a.k.a. Mark Twain, in his 1883 tall-tale memoir and travelogue Life on
the Mississippi, "with electric lighted streets, and blocks of buildings, which
are stately enough and also architecturally fine enough to command respect
in any city. It is a choice town." And a choice setting: With its lush
greenery and majestic bluffs spared by the Ice Age, surrounding fertile
farmlands, crystalline rivers and lakes, dense forests, and plentiful hunting
and fishing, the area was hailed locally as "God's Country."
By the early 1880s, members of a German clan named Kienzle had
reached God's Country. Nicholas Ray's German-born grandparents
stopped briefly in the Teutonic stronghold of Milwaukee before heading
to La Crosse, where they would eventually raise a brood of three sons and
five daughters. Their oldest son, Raymond Nicholas Kienzle, was born in
Milwaukee in 1863; he would wed twice, the first time at a tender age in
Milwaukee, before meeting Nicholas Ray's mother. Kienzle's second
marriage, in La Crosse in 1888, didn't last much longer than the first, though
it produced two daughters, who continued to live near their father after
their parents divorced.
An enigmatic, forbidding figure Raymond N. Kienzle was, as Ray
himself recalled him. In his earliest photographs he wears an ironic smile,
but later in life a walrus mustache and the El Producto cigar invariably
lodged in his mouth gave him the gravitas of a successful tradesman. The
Kienzles were building contractors, specializing in masonry, brick, and
stonework for public edifices and luxurious homes for rich clientele, and in
the 1890s Raymond, the oldest son, took over the family business.
Late in that decade, Kienzle got a big job renovating Gale College, a
Presbyterian institution recently absorbed by the Lutheran ministry, in
the town of Galesville, about twenty-five miles north of La Crosse. While
there he met a quiet and kindhearted woman eleven years his junior.
Slender and bespectacled Olene Toppen, known as Lena, had been raised on
a nearby farm, one of nine children born to parents who were natives of
The couple married in 1898 and soon moved onto four acres near
Galesville. Their land included a brickyard factory where Kienzle
employed a handful of workers. Kienzle took local commissions, including
a cement archway entrance to Galesville's High Cliff Park, but also jobs
that took him away for weeks elsewhere in the Midwest and as far as the
All four of the couple's children were born in the small town of Galesville:
three girlsAlice (b. 1900), Ruth (b. 1903), Helen (b. 1905)and, at
last, a son. Raymond Nicholas Kienzle Jr. came bawling into the world on
time he would drop the name "Kienzle," reverse the order of his first and
middle names, and adopt "Nicholas Ray" as his identity.
After he turned fifty, Raymond Sr. decided to cut back on his factory
work and travel. He put the trappings of his businessthe brick machines,
molders and sanders, kiln, sheds and tools, and the Galesville land itself
up for sale, and in stages moved his family back to La Crosse, purchasing
a series of houses co-owned or shared by Kienzle relatives. By 1920 the
Kienzles had landed in a house at 226 West Avenue North, near the corner
of Vine, facing west toward downtown and, just about a mile away, the
river the Indians called "the Father of Waters."
Especially after Rebel Without a Cause, the mythology surrounding Nicholas
Ray tended to highlight stories of a misspent youth, complete with
drinking, truancy, car thievery, brushes with the police, and flirtations
with his father's mistresses.
In many ways, however, his boyhood offers a scrapbook of an
Galesville wasn't far from La Crosse, and in the early years the Kienzles
made regular trips to the bigger city for shopping, holidays, and visits
to relatives. It was the city's first-rate public schools that eventually lured
the family to return there permanently. Although the countryside was still
dotted with a few tepees, and scattered steamboats continued to roam the
Mississippi, by 1920 Mark Twain's "choice town" had transformed itself
from prairie way station to glittering metropolis. La Crosse's streets were
lit with electricity and paved with stone, whizzing with automobiles and
streetcars; most neighborhoods had sidewalks and garbage collection, and
thousands of households had telephones.
La Crosse had cause for civic pride, though the lives of its citizens
were subject to the whims of extreme weather. The wind whipped across
the Mississippiperhaps not quite "like emery cloth tearing across their
faces," as René Hardy wrote of the searing ghibli in Bitter Victory, but
turbulently in the summers and frigidly in the winters. Those winters,
which brought snow and ice before Thanksgiving most years, were the
real endurance test. Yet La Crossians embraced the season with skiing
and skating and an annual winter carnival that featured dozens of floats
and fur-wrapped marching bands and employee clubs representing local
businesses. Ray must have remembered the strong wind, for it often blew
dramatically through key scenes of his filmssending up a murderous
sandstorm in Bitter Victory, howling outside as Mercedes McCambridge
makes her grand entrance in Johnny Guitar, blowing back the hair of the
mourning teenage rebels standing cliff-side in Rebel Without a Cause.
The Kienzles lived on a street with several other Kienzle aunts and
uncles, in a two-story house that was large but not architecturally fine: "a
big yellow barn," remembered Ferdinand Sontag, a neighbor and classmate
of Ray's. The living room featured a parquet floor and an Italian marble
fireplace; antlered heads decorated the walls, and the family's shelves were
crammed with books. There was a separate piano room; Lena Kienzle
played violin, and all her children learned to play at least one
instrument. For supper, the dining room was set with linen and lace; for
parties and holidays, the house filled with relatives, friends, and flowers.
By 1920, Ray's father was semi-retired, but he still took small jobs as
a bricklayer, cement man, and plasterer. He was active in the chamber of
commerce, while his wife earned plaques volunteering with the Red Cross
and Community Chest. Though raised as a Catholic, Raymond Sr. had
been excommunicated after his first divorce; for a time he joined the
Congregational Church, but eventually drifted away from organized religion.
His wife, brought up as a strict Lutheran, trended toward Methodism and
faithfully took her children to ser vices and Sunday school. Ray Jr. had
been steeped in the Bible, long before the temerity of his film King of Kings.
Ray Jr. was a Boy Scout, a good boy who delivered patriotic speeches in
grade school. On Election Day in 1924, as President Calvin Coolidge faced
off against Democratic candidate John W. Davis and Wisconsin Progressive
Robert M. La Follette Sr., the thirteen-year-old eighth-grader urged
his Lincoln Junior High School classmates to remind their parents to vote.
All three of Ray's sisters doted on their young brother, the only boy in
the family. His siblings were all pretty, with wavy hair like their mother's,
good-humored but serious-minded, anxious to leave home and La Crosse.
They also nursed ambitions beyond marriage. The eldest, Alice, had
already graduated from nursing school by the time of her young brother's
Election Day speech; after exchanging vows in the Kienzle living room,
she moved with her husband to Madison, the college town that was swiftly
surpassing La Crosse in size and prospects and glamour. The next-oldest
sister, Ruth, was on the verge of departing for Chicago. One by one the
girls leftwith Ray Jr.'s favorite, Helen, closest to him in age, the last to go.
Ray felt particularly close to Helenclose enough that, in one of his
autobiographical jottings, he confessed that his first crush was on her.
"Ever since I was four and she was nine I've wanted to make it with my
sister Helen," he noted wryly, "because she was my sister." Years later,
reflecting on some of his adult relationships, he would joke about a history of
similar improprieties and feeling "bent towards incest with other people's
children and wives, ex-wives, and daughters and such."
By the time Ray was a freshman at La Crosse Central High School,
Helen too had graduated and was planning her escape. The table settings
dwindled at home. Ray felt abandoned and lonesome, and this loneliness,
which was with him from earliest memory, never abated. It was fundamental
to his character and the themes of his filmswhich were often preoccupied
with "the loneliness of man," he noted, peopled by characters who
suffer "much agony and much searching," culminating in a private despair.
In youth and manhood alike, Ray too was a soul-searcher in tortured
colloquy with himself.
His mother lavished attention on the girls, but when it came to Ray Jr. she
deferred to her husband.
Raymond N. Kienzle Sr. was tall, his size and erect carriage lending
him a larger-than-life air. The filmmaker romanticized his father later
in life, once boasting that Raymond Sr. had "built levees, docking areas
for steamboats and dykes against floods," as well as "colleges, creameries,
whorehouses, cathedrals, and breweries." Beyond his success as a contractor,
his father had other positive qualities: Raymond Sr. loved music and
literature, politically a Republican, he was known to speak out against
racial prejudice at the dinner table. In 1924 he may even have voted for the
spoiler La Follette, who carried only one stateWisconsin.
But Raymond Sr. cast a formidable shadow. His son's delinquency
started as early as his Boy Scout years, by which time he was already smoking
and drinking and playing hooky. A stern disciplinarian, the father had
an iron fist, punishing his son physically for his indiscretions. And there
was something else: As the director put it once, he was raised under "the
lash of alcoholism." Though Lena Kienzle was a teetotaler, her husband
was a dedicated alcoholic. Drinking was one way to imitate his father. "All
during childhood and Prohibition," the filmmaker recalled years later,
"there was booze in the house, and on the street. At home it was for stealing.
I stole my first pint at ten. On the street it was for buyinggrain alcohol
mixed with sugar and hot waterwith money stolen from home. . . .
"I learned about Aqua Velva long before I started shaving. No, I didn't
drink it. I poured it over the sheets or into the bathtub to clear the smell
of my puke."
The household was filled with tension. Ray's parents slept in separate
bedrooms, and after dinner Raymond Sr. often disappeared, prowling
a city that despite Prohibition was flush with speakeasies and saloons.
Sometimes he didn't come home until the next day.
"If he had the guts to knock Mom cold once," Jim Stark ( James Dean)
muses harshly in Rebel Without a Cause, "then maybe she'd be happy and
stop picking on him."
Excerpted from Nicholas Ray by Patrick McGilligan Copyright © 2011 by Patrick McGilligan. Excerpted by permission of IT Books. All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
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Table of Contents
Chapter 1 The Iron Fist, the Velvet Glove 1
Chapter 2 "Struggle Is Grand" 21
Chapter 3 Agitation of the Essence 49
Chapter 4 "Ungathered" 81
Chapter 5 Atmosphere of Fear 125
Chapter 6 Mr. Nice Guy 173
Chapter 7 Bread and Taxes 215
Chapter 8 The Golden World 262
Chapter 9 Circle of Isolation 314
Chapter 10 Lost Causes 356
Chapter 11 The Martyrlogue 391
Chapter 12 Project X 440
Other Credits 507
Sources and Acknowledgments 508