No Choice but War: The United States Embargo Against Japan and the Eruption of War in the Pacific

No Choice but War: The United States Embargo Against Japan and the Eruption of War in the Pacific

by Roland H. Worth

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In July 1941 the United States, after a decade of worsening economic relations, announced a total embargo against Japan. The embargo had actually begun in 1940 with a so-called moral embargo under which U.S. exports of planes and war material to Japan were barred. In early 1941 Washington squeezed the Tokyo government further by unofficially tightening exports of petroleum. By December 1941, over 90 percent of Japan’s oil supply was cut off, as was nearly 70 percent of its overall trade. From contemporary source documents, this is a detailed look at the U.S.–led embargo and how it contributed to Japan’s decision to attack Pearl Harbor and declare war on the United States.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780786401413
Publisher: McFarland & Company, Incorporated Publishers
Publication date: 07/01/1995
Pages: 248
Product dimensions: 9.00(w) x 6.00(h) x (d)

About the Author

Roland H. Worth, Jr., is the author of many books. He lives in Richmond, Virginia.

Table of Contents

Preface ix

Introduction 1

1 America's Growing Alienation from Japan: The 1930s 7

2 The Slaps on the Wrist Grow Stronger: 1940 26

3 Buildup to Confrontation: January to July 1941 44

4 An Appearance of Totality-The Embargo Becomes Official: July 1941 62

5 Gambling on Economic Strangulation: Appearance Becomes Reality, August to December 1941 82

6 Impact of the 1940 Embargo Measures on Japan 100

7 Impact of the 1941 Embargo Measures on Japan 107

8 The Petroleum Supply Crisis of 1941 123

9 The Public Stance of the Japanese Government 136

10 Top Echelon Dialogue: The Liaison and Imperial Conferences of the Japanese Government 157

11 Internal Diplomatic Communications of the Japanese Government 163

12 Confidential American Evaluations of the Embargo's Impact 175

13 The American Recognition of the War-Making Potential of an Embargo 187

14 Disavowing the Linkage Between Embargo and War 203

Conclusion 217

Bibliography 221

Index 227

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