Not Condemned To Repetition, Second Edition: The United States And Nicaragua

Not Condemned To Repetition, Second Edition: The United States And Nicaragua

by Robert Pastor


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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780813339733
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Publication date: 01/11/2002
Pages: 378
Product dimensions: 6.00(w) x 9.00(h) x 1.18(d)

About the Author

Robert A. Pastor is the Vice President of International Affairs at American University. He has served as the Goodrich C. White Professor of Political Science at Emory University, and he is the former director of Latin American and Caribbean Affairs, National Security Council. Dr. Pastor was a Visiting Professor at Harvard University and from 1985-98, he was Fellow and Founding Director of the Latin American and Caribbean Program and the Democracy project at the Carter Center.

Table of Contents

List of Illustrationsxi
Part ISetting the Stage1
1Declining Dictators, Rising Revolutions3
The Ghost of Cuba Past4
The Cuban Drama in Seven Stages6
Distinguishing Succession Crises from Revolutions10
The Thesis in Brief: The Three Challenges of Nicaragua12
2A Fractured History14
The Subterranean Rhythm14
U.S. Entry into the Caribbean17
The First Somoza21
Democrats vs. Dictators vs. Communists24
Recurring Themes26
3Roads to Revolution28
The Brothers Somoza28
The United States: From Identification to Neutrality32
The Sandinistas33
The Revolution before the Revolution36
Part IIThe Succession Crisis, 1977-197939
4Human Rights and Nicaraguan Wrongs41
Human Rights Policy: Theory and Application42
The Impact on Nicaragua44
The Death of Chamorro49
The First Policy Review50
The Carter Letter55
The Takeover of the National Palace59
The Frontier61
5To Mediate or Not to Mediate: The Policy Question62
Motive for Movement63
The National Security Decision-Making Process65
Behind the Mediation68
Bombing the Bunker71
Divergent Perspectives of the Mediation76
Back In the Middle81
6The (First) Mediation82
Building Bridges82
The Plebiscite86
Sanctions and Their Impact97
7Marching to Different Drummers99
Withdrawal Pains99
Unfriendly Neighbors101
The Calm and the Storm104
Secret Mission to Panama107
A New U.S. Plan109
In Different Directions111
8The Reluctant Arbiter114
The OAS Meeting115
The Decision Not to Intervene120
Two Pillars123
The Torrijos Conspiracy129
Translating the Plan into Panamanian136
Preserving the Guard: The Formaldehyde Solution142
The Last Days145
Part IIIRelating to the Revolution155
10Carter: Mutual Respect and Suspicion157
The Carter Administration's Lessons158
The Benefit of the Doubt159
The Distribution and Purposes of Power162
Relating to the United States166
The American People Debate Nicaragua171
11Carter: Mutual Temptations175
Changing Internal and International Relationships175
Companeros and Contras177
Salazar and the Counterrevolutionary Temptation181
El Salvador and the Revolutionary Temptation183
The State of Relations187
12Reagan: Mutual Resentment189
The Reagan Administration's Lessons189
The Fork in the Road192
Constraints: Congress and Contadora197
The Fruit of Resentment199
13Reagan: Mutual Obsessions201
Deepening the Commitment201
A Pause for Elections204
The Reagan Doctrine on National Liberation206
Contadora and Its Offspring208
Home to Roost210
An Assessment of the Politics and the Policy213
Part IVThe Democratic Transition and Nicaragua's Lessons215
14The Central American Initiative217
Peace Plans218
Judgment Day220
New Faces224
The Prospects for Reconciliation228
15The Second Mediation: Defining the Rules for a Free Election230
The Alignment of the Planets232
The Parameters of the Election237
The Washington Connection243
Registering Voters and Political Earthquakes245
Reconciling Nicaraguans and Observers249
The Invasion and Its Aftermath252
16The Transfer258
Midnight Meeting260
The First Days of the Transition266
The Wayward Path to the Transfer275
Trading Places277
The Struggles Among Brothers and Branches282
17Lessons from Three Challenges: Succession, Revolution, and Democracy287
The Patterns of Policy288
Explaining Continuity and Change in U.S. Policy293
The Democratic Option298
Missed Opportunities and Lessons of Nicaragua301

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