Professionally converted for accurate flowing-text e-book format reproduction, this study examines how the U.S. government can follow a path to an effective cyberspace deterrence strategy by examining key periods in its past, countering the contemporary hypothesis that the unique nature of cyberspace alters warfare in such a way that historical approaches to deterrence no longer apply. Today, existing threats in cyberspace are the most pressing and compelling test of our thinking and the ten principles of cyberspace deterrence gleaned from the historical analysis of warfighting set the foundation for a solution.
Thousands of cyberspace attacks occur each day and the likelihood of a significant incident in the near future is high. The development of a coherent cyberstrategy has been slow in coming, however. This delay often emanates from the perception that cyberspace represents such a pervasive revolution in the conduct of warfare that successful deterrence strategies of the past are not applicable. Currently, the benefits for committing malicious actions in cyberspace far outweigh the risk of punishment.
INTRODUCTION * The Fifth Domain * The Known * The Way Ahead * Research Approach * CHAPTER 1 * FOUNDATIONS * Cyberspace * Domain * Information Environment * Information Technology Infrastructures * Deterrence * Cyberspace Threats * Credible Threats * Cyber War * Strategic Guidance * National Security Strategy * The International Strategy for Cyberspace * Sustaining Global Leadership: Priorities for the 21st Century Defense * Quadrennial Defense Review * Department of Defense Strategy for Operating in Cyberspace * National Military Strategy * Blueprint for a Secure Cyber Future * CHAPTER 2 * HISTORY * Thinking in Time * Space Deterrence * Deterrence of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) * Iraq * Libya * Iran * Nuclear Deterrence * The Cuban Missile Crisis * Military Deterrence * How is Cyberspace Different? * Attribution * Disarmament * Retaliation * Escalation * Targeting * Toward a Deterrence Strategy for Cyberspace * CHAPTER 3 * THE PRINCIPLES OF CYBERSPACE DETERRENCE * Deterrence Principles * Principle 1: Define the Domain * Principle 2: Defend the Domain * Principle 3: Destroy Threats to the Domain * Principle 4: Beware of Treaties * Principle 5: Establish Escalation Precedence * Principle 6: Ensure a Flexible Response * Principle 7: Institute a Collective Defense * Principle 8: Demilitarize Foreign Policy * Principle 9: Determine the Focus of the Deterrence Effort * Principle 10: Continually Incorporate History * CHAPTER 4 * RECOMMENDATIONS * Principles of Cyberspace Deterrence * Joint Doctrine Development * Developing and Communicating the Strategy * Legal Approval * Training and Exercises * Command and Control * CONCLUSION * BIBLIOGRAPHY
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