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Nuclear and Particle Physics: An Introduction / Edition 1

Nuclear and Particle Physics: An Introduction / Edition 1

by Brian R. Martin, B. R. Martin
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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780470019993
Publisher: Wiley
Publication date: 04/28/2006
Pages: 428
Product dimensions: 6.60(w) x 9.70(h) x 1.30(d)

About the Author

Professor Brian R Martin, formerly of: Department of Physics & Astronomy, University College London, London, UK
Brian Marin was an undergraduate at Birmingham University and then moved to University College (1962-1964) to take a PhD in Theoretical Physics. During 1964/65 he was a Ford Foundation Fellow at the Institute for Theoretical Physics, Copenhagen University, and for 1965/66 held a NATO Postdoctoral Fellowship at the Neils Bohr Institute, Copenhagen. He then spent two years (1966-68) as a Research Associate in the Physics Department of Brookhaven National Laboratory, New York, before returning to UCL as a Lecturer. He served as Head of Department from 1993 to 2004.
His research interests have been the phenomenology of elementary particle physics, with particular emphasis on analyses using models that incorporate as much firm general physical theory as possible and the extraction of reliable information from data. He has written two books on particle physics, one at graduate level on pion-pion interactions and the other a general introduction to the field for advanced undergraduates.

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Table of Contents

Preface     xi
Notes     xiii
Physical Constants and Conversion Factors     xv
Basic Concepts     1
History     1
The origins of nuclear physics     1
The emergence of particle physics: the standard model and hadrons     4
Relativity and antiparticles     7
Symmetries and conservation laws     9
Parity     10
Charge conjugation     12
Interactions and Feynman diagrams     13
Interactions     13
Feynman diagrams     15
Particle exchange: forces and potentials     17
Range of forces     17
The Yukawa potential     19
Observable quantities: cross sections and decay rates     20
Amplitudes     21
Cross-sections     23
Unstable states     27
Units: length, mass and energy     29
Problems     30
Nuclear Phenomenology     33
Mass spectroscopy and binding energies     33
Nuclear shapes and sizes     37
Charge distribution     37
Matter distribution     42
Nuclear instability     45
Radioactivedecay     47
Semi-empirical mass formula: the liquid drop model     50
[Beta]-decay phenomenology     55
Odd-mass nuclei     55
Even-mass nuclei     58
Fission     59
[gamma]-decays     62
Nuclear reactions     62
Problems     67
Particle Phenomenology     71
Leptons     71
Lepton multiplets and lepton numbers     71
Neutrinos     74
Neutrino mixing and oscillations     76
Neutrino masses     79
Universal lepton interactions - the number of neutrinos     84
Quarks     36
Evidence for quarks     86
Quark generations and quark numbers     89
Hadrons     92
Flavour independence and charge multiplets     92
Quark model spectroscopy     96
Hadron masses and magnetic moments     102
Problems     108
Experimental Methods     111
Overview     111
Accelerators and beams     113
DC accelerators     113
AC accelerators     115
Neutral and unstable particle beams     122
Particle interactions with matter     123
Short-range interactions with nuclei     123
Ionization energy losses     125
Radiation energy losses     128
Interactions of photons in matter     129
Particle detectors     131
Gas detectors     131
Scintillation counters     137
Semiconductor detectors     138
Particle identification     139
Calorimeters     142
Layered detectors     145
Problems     148
Quark Dynamics: the Strong Interaction     151
Colour     151
Quantum chromodynamics (QCD)     153
Heavy quark bound states     156
The strong coupling constant and asymptotic freedom     160
Jets and gluons     164
Colour counting     166
Deep inelastic scattering and nucleon structure     168
Problems     177
Electroweak Interactions     181
Charged and neutral currents     181
Symmetries of the weak interaction     182
Spin structure of the weak interactions     186
Neutrinos     187
Particles with mass: chirality     189
W[superscript plusmn] and Z[superscript 0] bosons     192
Weak interactions of hadrons     194
Semileptonic decays     194
Neutrino scattering     198
Neutral meson decays     201
CP violation     202
Flavour oscillations     206
Neutral currents and the unified theory     208
Problems     213
Models and Theories of Nuclear Physics     217
The nucleon - nucleon potential     217
Fermi gas model     220
Shell model     223
Shell structure of atoms     223
Nuclear magic numbers     225
Spins, parities and magnetic dipole moments     228
Excited states     230
Non-spherical nuclei     232
Electric quadrupole moments     232
Collective model     236
Summary of nuclear structure models     236
[Alpha]-decay     238
[Beta]-decay     242
Fermi theory     242
Electron momentum distribution     244
Kurie plots and the neutrino mass     246
[gamma]-emission and internal conversion     248
Selection rules     248
Transition rates      250
Problems     252
Applications of Nuclear Physics     255
Fission     255
Induced fission - fissile materials     255
Fission chain reactions     258
Nuclear power reactors     260
Fusion     266
Coulomb barrier     266
Stellar fusion     267
Fusion reaction rates     270
Fusion reactors     273
Biomedical applications     278
Biological effects of radiation: radiation therapy     278
Medical imaging using radiation     282
Magnetic resonance imaging     290
Problems     294
Outstanding Questions and Future Prospects     297
Particle physics     297
The Higgs boson     297
Grand unification     300
Supersymmetry     304
Particle astrophysics     307
Nuclear physics     315
The structure of hadrons and nuclei     316
Quark-gluon plasma, astrophysics and cosmology     320
Symmetries and the standard model     323
Nuclear medicine     324
Power production and nuclear waste     326
Some Results in Quantum Mechanics      331
Barrier penetration     331
Density of states     333
Perturbation theory and the Second Golden Rule     335
Relativistic Kinematics     339
Lorentz transformations and four-vectors     339
Frames of reference     341
Invariants     344
Problems     345
Rutherford Scattering     349
Classical physics     349
Quantum mechanics     352
Problems     354
Solutions to Problems     355
References     393
Bibliography     397
Index     401

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"Enthusiastically recommended as a useful addition to any college or university library." (CHOICE, December 2006)

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