The book has seven chapters. Background information is provided in the first, which describes the nuclear fuel cycle from uranium mines to decommissioning. Chapter two summarizes knowledge about the somatic and genetic effects of radiation in normal and accident situations, discusses dose-response relationships, and sets out general principles of radiation protection. The third chapter, on the health hazards of normal operation, explains the risks posed by the release of airborne and liquid radioactive waste, the reprocessing of uranium and plutonium, the transportation of radioactive material, and the treatment and disposal of radioactive waste. Nuclear accidents and their effects on health are discussed in the most extensive chapter, which draws on what has been learned following the catastrophic accidents at Chernobyl and Goiania, Brazil and from accidents linked to the military and medical uses of radiation. Chapter five tabulates and compares data on the risks to workers, the general public, and the environment posed by coal, oil, thermal, and nuclear sources of electrical energy. The concluding chapters assess the risk of theft of radioactive materials, and discuss public information.