Pub. Date:
American Institute of Aeronautics & Astronautics
Nuclear Space Power and Propulsion Systems

Nuclear Space Power and Propulsion Systems

by Claudio Bruno


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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781563479519
Publisher: American Institute of Aeronautics & Astronautics
Publication date: 10/15/2008
Pages: 284
Product dimensions: 6.20(w) x 9.20(h) x 0.90(d)

About the Author

Claudio Bruno, professor at the School of Aerospace engineering at the University of Rome La Sapienza, earned his M.S. at the University of Rome and an M.A. and Ph.D. at Princeton University. He has held positions at Physics International, National Research Council, Princeton University, and the University of Rome, Italy. His awards include a NATO Fellowship, Fulbright Travel Grant, and Guggenheim Fellowship.

Table of Contents

Preface xiii

Acronyms and Abbreviations xv

Nomenclature xix

Chapter 1 Nuclear Propulsion-An Introduction Claudio Bruno 1

Introduction 1

Fundamental Physics 2

Conclusions 27

References 28

Chapter 2 Nuclear-Thermal-Rocket Propulsion Systems Timothy J. Lawrence 31

Introduction 31

System Configuration and Operation 34

Nuclear-Thermal-Rocket Concepts 37

MagOrion and Mini-MagOrion 45

Safety 47

Conclusions 49

References 50

Chapter 3 Application of Ion Thrusters to High-Thrust, High-Specific Impulse Nuclear Electric Missions D. G. Fearn 53

Introduction 53

Background 55

Gridded Ion Engines-Current Devices 69

Scaling Process 93

High-SI, High-Power Operation 101

Conclusions 115

References 118

Chapter 4 High-Power and High-Thrust-Density Electric Propulsion for In-Space Transportation Monika Auweter-Kurtz Helmut Kurtz 127

Introduction 127

Thermal Arcjets 128

Magnetoplasmadynamic Thruster 138

High-Power Hybrid ATTILA Thruster 168

Conclusions 170

References 171

Chapter 5 Review of Reactor Configurations for Space Nuclear Electric Propulsion and Surface Power Considerations Roger X. Lenard 177

Introduction 177

Reactor Requirements 178

Reactor and Power Conversion-Mass Comparison 180

Reactor Operation Startup 200

Conclusions 202

Reference 202

Chapter 6 Nuclear Safety: Legal Aspects and Policy Recommendations Roger X. Lenard 203

Finding 1 Space Nuclear Power and Energy Have Important Historic and Pivotal Future Roles in Space Exploration 203

Finding 2 To Implement Space Nuclear Power and Propulsion It Must Be Perceived to be Safe by the General Population 205

Finding 3 Existing Policies and Procedures are Adequate forAchieving Requirements of Public Safety and Environmental Compliance 206

Finding 4 The Existing Processes for Design, Fabrication, and Test, Including Safety Analysis are Adequate for Pre-Launch Safety and Environmental Compliance 213

Finding 5 The Safety and Operations Phase for NEP or NTP Systems Should Be Developed so as to Maximize Possible Scenarios for Space Nuclear Reactor Employment 217

Finding 6 Safety Assessment for Additional Risks Posed by Lunar and Mars Base Mission Scenarios Indicates That Space Reactor Systems Can Be Used Safely and Effectively on the Surfaces of Other Celestial Bodies 223

Finding 7 Definable Surface Nuclear Power System Hazards Can Be Defined and Associated Risks Can Be Mitigated 223

Finding 8 There Appears to Be No Reason That a Space Nuclear Reactor Power System Cannot Be Safely Deployed and Operated on the Surface of Another World While Maintaining Standards of Planetary Protection 226

Finding 9 A Space Reactor System Enables Effective Design Options in Mitigating Potential Radiation Releases 227

Finding 10 A Transparent and Systematically Traceable Space-System Safety Test and Analysis Program Must Be Conducted to Ensure Crew and Public Safety 227

Finding 11 Prior Space Reactor Programs Expended Resources ort Destructive Disassembly Testing for Low-Probability Incidents-System-Level Testing Should Be Reserved for More Likely Scenarios 231

Finding 12 An Integrated Approach for Performance and Safety Analysis and Testing Is Critical to a Cost-Effective Development Program 237

Finding 13 The Ultimate Objective of All Programmatic Activities Is to Obtain Launch Approval for the Space Reactor System-the Program Should Be Structured to Attain the Goal 239

Conclusions 241

References 242

Appendix A Radioactivity, Doses, and Risks in Nuclear Propulsion Alessio Del Rossi Claudio Bruno 245

Introduction 245

Radioactivity 245

Radiation, Dose, and Their Units 247

Effects of Ionizing Radiation 251

Sources of Radiation Exposure 256

Conclusions 266

References 267

Appendix B The Chernobyl Accident- A Detailed Account Alessio Del Rossi Claudio Bruno 269

Introduction 269

Reactor Design 269

Chernobyl Events 270

Consequences 273

Conclusions 273

References 274

Index 275

Supporting Materials 283

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