A comprehensive review Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) is a chronic debilitating disorder that occurs at any age and in populations around the world. Its pathogenesis is believed to involve a combination of genetic susceptibility, immune and external environmental factors, including the gut microbiota. Changing factors such as diet and the human gut microbiota may thus be a viable alternative to suppressing the innate and adaptive immune responses. The book at hand starts with a summary of the current understanding of the epidemiology and biologic underpinnings that manifest as IBD. Next, the gut microbiota, its function, and how it may interact with nutritional status in perpetuating IBD are looked at, followed by discussions on the potential for manipulation of the gut microbiota through the use of prebiotics, probiotics, antibiotics, and fecal transplantation. Chapters on the current role of and future prospects for nutritional interventions in the management of IBD complete the topics presented.