For the third time, specialists from all over the world met to present their most recent scientific results and to update their knowledge in the expand ing field of nutrition and, osteoporosis. Major nutrition-al factors, such as calcium and vitamin D, were reexamined, with special attention on the ef fects of calcium, given either as a supplement or in dairy products in chil dren and adolescents, and to vitamin D supplementation in the elderly. The RDA for calcium was questioned, and the calcium requirement was rede fined. Special attention was paid to proteins and their growth promoting action via IGF-l, as well as to the profound effects on calcium and bone metabolism of vegetarian diets or diets rich in acidic or alkaline foods. Although considered an environmental factor influencing the pathogenesis of osteoporosis, nutrition was discussed in relation to genetic conditions, because certain genetic conditions modifY patients' responses to nutritional deficiencies and to supplementary interventions. These proceedings report the wide spectrum of research currently being undertaken and the new perspectives this presents and emphasize the sig nificant and important impact of nutrition on bone health and disease.
Table of ContentsI. Nutrition and Development of Bone in Childhood and Adolescence.- 1. Calcium Intake and Age Influence Calcium Retention in Adolescence.- 2. The Effect of Enhanced Bone Gain Achieved with Calcium Supplementation During Ages 12 to 16 Does Not Persist in Late Adolescence.- 3. Skeletal Development in Young Females: Endogenous Versus Exogenous Factors.- 4. Teenage Girls Dietary Intake, Attitude Toward Dairy Products, and Bone Mineral Density One Year after the Cessation of a Dairy Product Food Supplement Study.- 5. Bone Growth in Childhood and Adolescence: The Interpretation of Dietary Supplementation Trials.- 6. Calcium Intake Is Not Related to the Increase of Bone Mass in Professional Football Players.- 7. Associations of Physical Activity and Calcium Intake with Bone Characteristics in Women.- 8. The Recommended Dietary Allowance for Calcium Is Unknown in Young Healthy Adults.- II. Nutrition and Genetics.- 9. Interaction Between Genetic and Nutritional Factors.- 10. GeneticsDietary Calcium Interaction and Bone Mass.- 11 The Influence of the Vitamin D and Estrogen Receptor Genotypes on Bone Mineral Density Changes in Teenage Girls Supplemented with Dairy Products.- III. IGF and Nutrition.- 12. Nutritional Regulation of Hepatic Production of IGF-1.- 13. Nutritional Factors Influencing IGF-1 Concentrations in Postmenopausal Women.- 14. IGF-1 and Osteoporosis: Lessons from Mice and Men.- 15. Protein Intake and Osteoporosis.- IV. Various Nutritional Influences.- 16. Dietary Xylitol Protects Against Osseal Changes in Experimental Osteoporosis.- 17. Effects of Caffeine Consumption on Hip Fracture, Bone Density, and Calcium Retention.- 18. Effects of Soy Isoflavones on Bone.- 19. Voluntary Weight Reduction Increases Bone Turnover and Loss.- 20. Adaptation of Young Men to High Phosphate Intake.- V. Influence of Food Composition on Bone.- 21. Bone Health and Nutritional Status of Chinese Vegetarians.- 22. Fruit and Vegetable Consumption and Bone Health: Is There a Link?.- 23. Acid-Base Imbalance and the Skeleton.- 24. Salt Effects on Bone and Calcium Metabolism.- VI. Vitamin D Supply and Vitamin D Deficiency.- 25. Effects of Vitamin D3, 25(OH)D, and 1,25(OH)2D on Calcium Absorption Efficiency.- 26. Bioavailability of Various Calcium Supplements: Low-Dose Vitamin D Enhances Calcium Absorption in Normal Women.- 27. Vitamin D Deficiency Does Not Influence Peak Bone Mass in Ushuaia.- 28. Reasonable Vitamin D Daily Allowance.- 29. Does Calcium Intake Change Vitamin D Requirements?.- 30. Defining Hypovitaminosis D in the Elderly.- VII. Nutritional Deficiencies and Bone Health.- 31. Calcium and Vitamin D Nutrition in the Elderly.- 32. Prevalence of Latent Vitamin D Insufficiency in a Middle-Aged Normal Population from SU. VI. MAX Study.- 33. Vitamin D and Calcium Dietary Supplements in the Elderly.- VIII. Calcium in the Treatment of Osteoporosis.- 34. Interactions Between Calcium Intake and Antiresorptive Therapy in Osteoporosis.- 35. Recommended Calcium Intakes Revisited: Round Table.- Author Index.