Object-Oriented Programming Using C++

Object-Oriented Programming Using C++

by Ira Pohl

Paperback(Older Edition)

$42.95

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780805353822
Publisher: Addison Wesley Professional
Publication date: 03/31/1993
Series: Object Oriented Software Engineering Ser.
Edition description: Older Edition
Pages: 512
Product dimensions: 6.23(w) x 9.30(h) x 0.82(d)

About the Author

Ira Pohl is a Professor of Computer Science at the University of California, Santa Cruz and holds a Ph.D. in Computer Science from Stanford University. His research interests include artificial intelligence, the C and C++ programming languages, practical complexity problems, heuristic search methods, deductive algorithms, and educational and social issues. He originated error analysis in heuristic search methods and deductive algorithms.

Professor Pohl was formerly a Mackay professor at University of California- Berkeley and a ZWO fellow in the Netherlands. He is the author or co-author of Object-Oriented Programming Using C++, C++ Distilled: A Concise Ansi/Iso Reference and Style Guide, C by Dissection: The Essentials of C Programming, A Book on C: Programming in C, C++ for C Programmers, C++ for Fortran Programmers, C++ for Pascal Programmers, and Turbo C: The Essentials of C Programming, all published by Addison-Wesley.

0201895501AB04062001

Read an Excerpt

PREFACE:

PREFACE

This book is intended as an introduction to object-oriented programming(OOP) using ANSI C++ for the reader or student who already has programmingexperience. It explains C++ features in the context of OOP.

C++ has had many recent additions including STL, namespaces, RTTI, and thebool type. These can be used readily by someone already proficient in basicC++, but most books have yet to treat these topics. This book can provide ahandy guide to these new constructs.

The examples both within the book, and accessible at Addison-Wesley's website are intended to exhibit good programming style. The Addison-Wesley website, www.aw.com for this book contains the programs in the book as well asadjunct programs that illustrate points made in the book, or that flesh outshort pieces of programs. The programs available at the web site areintroduced by their .cpp or .h names.

C++, invented at Bell Labs by Bjarne Stroustrup in the mid-1980s, is apowerful modern successor language to C. C++ adds to C the concept ofclass, a mechanism for providing user-defined types also calledabstract data types. It supports object-oriented programming by thesemeans and by providing inheritance and run-time type binding.

By carefully developing working C++ programs, using the method ofdissection, this book presents a simple and thorough introduction to theprogramming process in C++. Dissection is a technique for explaining newelements in a program that the student is seeing for the first time. Ithighlights key points in the many examples of working code that are used toteach by example.

This book is intended for use in afirst course in programming in C++. Itcan be used as a supplementary text in an advanced programming course, datastructures course, software methodology course, comparative language course,or other courses where the instructor wants C++ to be the language of choice.Each chapter presents a number of carefully explained programs. Many programsand functions are dissected.

All the major pieces of code were tested. A consistent and proper codingstyle is adopted from the beginning. The style standard used is one chosen byprofessionals in the C++ community.

In conjunction with A Book on C, Third Edition by Al Kelley and IraPohl (Addison Wesley Longman, 1995), an integrated treatment of the Cand C++ programming languages and their use are presented which are notavailable elsewhere. For the beginner, a simpler introduction to the Clanguage is C by Dissection: The Essentials of C Programming, ThirdEdition by Al Kelley and Ira Pohl (Addison Wesley Longman, 1995).

Chapters contain:

    Object-Oriented Concept: Explains how an object-orientedprogramming concept is supported by a language feature.

    Working Code: Small examples of working code illustrateconcepts. Code illustrates a language feature or an OOP concept.

    Dissections: A program particularly illustrative of thechapter's themes is analyzed by dissection. Dissection is similar to astructured walk-through of the code. Its intention is to explain to the readernewly encountered programming elements and idioms.

    Pragmatics: Tips, pitfalls, nuances, and advice on thetopic.

    Summary: A succinct list of points are reiterated ashelpful chapter review.

    Exercises: The exercises test the student's knowledge ofthe language. Many exercises are intended to be done interactively whilereading the text. This encourages self-paced instruction by the reader. Theexercises also frequently extend the reader's knowledge to an advanced area ofuse.

The book incorporates:

    Object-Oriented Programming. Object-Orientation isstressed throughout. Chapter 1, "Why Object-Oriented Programming in C++?,"provides an introduction to C++'s use as an object-oriented programminglanguage. Chapter 2, "Native Types and Statements," shows data types,expressions, and simple statements. Chapter 3, "Functions and Pointers,"continues with similarities between functions and complex data types. The middle chapters show how classes work. Classes are the basis for abstract datatypes and object-oriented programming. The last few chapters give advanceddetails of the use of inheritance, templates, and exceptions. Chapter 12, "OOPUsing C++," discusses OOP and the Platonic programming philosophy. Thisbook develops in the programmer an appreciation of this point of view. At anypoint in the text the programmer can stop and use the new material.

    Teaching by Example. This book is a tutorial that stressesexamples of working code. From the start the student is introduced to fullworking programs. An interactive environment is assumed. Exercises areintegrated with the examples to encourage experimentation. Excessive detail isavoided in explaining the larger elements of writing working code. Eachchapter has several important example programs. Major elements of theseprograms are explained by dissection.

    Data Structures in C++. The text emphasizes many of thestandard data structures from computer science. Stacks, safe arrays,dynamically allocated multidimensional arrays, lists, trees, and strings areall implemented. Exercises extend the student's understanding of how toimplement and use these structures. Implementation is consistent with anabstract data type approach to software.

    Standard Template Library (STL). STL is explained and usedin Chapter 9, "Templates, Generic Programming, and STL." Many of the datastructure examples foreshadow its explanation and use. There is a strongemphasis on the template mechanism required for STL and the iterator idiomthat STL exploits.

    ANSI C++ language and iostream.h. For an existing,widely used language, C++ continues to change at a rapid pace. This book isbased on the most recent standard: the ANSI C++ Committee language documents.A succinct informal language reference is provided in Appendix C, "LanguageGuide." Chief additions include templates and exception handling. The examplesuse the iostream.h I/O library. This has replaced stdio.h usedin the C community. Use of the iostream.h library is described inAppendix D, "Input/Output."

    Reference Value in Appendices. There is an easilyaccessible informal language reference appendix: Appendix C, "Language Guide."Though this is not official, it specifies the language definition in a tersemanner. There is also an appendix on the key I/O libraries, iostream.hand stream.h: Appendix D, "Input/Output." A short guide to both thestring library and STL is given in Appendix E, "STL and StringLibraries."

    Idiomatic and Mainstream. The book attempts to stay withmainstream aspects of the language that are most important for the student andprofessional. It avoids arcane features of the language that are error proneor confusing. It is idiomatic in its use of code. The code is readily copiedand reapplied to other problems.

    Industry- and Course-Tested. It is the basis of manyon-site professional training courses given by the author, who has used itscontents to train professionals and students in various forums since 1986. Thevarious changes in the new edition are course-tested, and reflect considerableteaching and consulting experience by the author. The book is the basis for anextensive series of video training tapes and on-line courses. More informationon these courses is available at the author's web site at www.cse.ucsc.edu/~pohl.

Acknowledgments

My special thanks to my wife, Debra Dolsberry, who encouraged me throughoutthis project. She acted as book designer and technical editor for this secondedition. She developed appropriate formats and style sheets in FrameMaker 4.0and guided the transition process from the first edition in troff. Shealso implemented and tested all major pieces of code. Her carefulimplementations of the code and exercises led to many improvements. StephenClamage of TauMetric Corporation provided wonderfully insightful comments onlanguage detail. William Engles of University of Wisconsin described animproved shuffling routine for the poker example. Reviews for this additionwere provided by Jean Bell, Colorado School of Mines; Arthur Delcher, LoyolaUniversity; Konstantin Läufer, Loyola University; James L. Murphy,California State University; Kent Wooldridge, California State University;Shih-Ho Wang, University of California; David B. Teague, Western CarolinaUniversity; Lukasz Pruski, California State University; and David Gregory.Randal Burns and Hiroya Chiba, teaching assistants and computer sciencegraduate students of University of California at Santa Cruz, also contributedto the reviewing process.

The first edition had help, inspiration, and encouragement from, PeterApers, University of Twente, The Netherlands; Henri Bal, Vrije University, TheNetherlands; Michael Beeson, State University of California; Nan Borreson,Borland International; Douglas Campbell, University of Conneticut; CathyCollins, USC; Steve Demurjian; Robert Doran, University of Auckland, NewZealand; Robert Durling, UCSC; Daniel Edelson, UCSC; Anton Eliens, VrijeUniversity, The Netherlands; Ray Fujioka, USC; Thomas Judson, University ofPortland; Al Kelley, UCSC; Jim Kempf, Sun Microsystems, Incorporated; DarrellLong, UCSC; Charlie McDowell, UCSC; Laura Pohl, Cottage Consultants; Reind vande Riet, Vrije University, The Netherlands; Anthony Wasserman, IDE; and SalihYurttas, Texas A&M University.

The second edition was developed with the support of my editor J. CarterShanklin and editorial assistant Angela Buenning. Finally, I thank BjarneStroustrup for inventing such a powerful language and encouraging others tohelp teach it.



0201895501P04062001

Table of Contents

1. Why Object-Oriented Programming in C++.
Object-Oriented Programming.
Why C++ is a Better C.
Encapsulation and Type Extensibility.
Construction of Objects.
Conversions, Operators, and Seamless Types.
Inheritance.
Polymorphism.
Benefits of Object-Oriented Programming.

2. Native Types and Statements.
Program Elements.
Input and Output.
Program Structure.
Simple Types.
The Traditional Conversions.
Enumeration Types.
Expressions.
Statements.

3. Functions and Pointers.
Functions.
Function Definition.
The RETURN Statement.
Function Prototypes.
Default Arguments.
Overloading Functions.
Inlining.
Scope.
Storage Class.
Pointer Types.
Reference Declarations and Call-By-Reference.
The Use of VOID.
Arrays and Pointers.
The Relationship Between Arrays and Pointers.
Passing Arrays to Functions.
Strings: A Kernel Language ADT.
Multidimensional Arrays.
Free Storage Operators NEW and DELETE.

4. Implementing ADTs in the Base Language.
The Aggregate Type STRUCT.
Structure Pointer Operator.
An Example: Stack.
Unions.
Complex Numbers.
An Example: Flushing.
Bit Fields.
An Example: Dynamic Arrays.

5. Data Hiding and Member Functions.
Member Functions.
Visibility PRIVATE andPUBLIC.
Classes.
Class Scope.
STATIC Member.
An Example: Revisiting Flushing.
The THIS Pointer.
STATIC and CONST Member Functions.
Containers and Items Access.

6. Object Creation.
Classes with Constructors.
Construction a Dynamically Sized Stack.
Classes with Destructors.
An Example: Dynamically Allocated Strings.
A Class.
Members That Are Class Types.
An Example: A Singly Linked List.
Polynomials as a Linked List.
Strings Using Reference Semantics.
No Constructor Copy Constructor, and Other Mysteries.

7. Ad Hoc Polymorphism.
Class-Defined Conversion.
Overloading and Function Selection.
FRIEND Functions.
Overloading Operators.
Unary Operator Overloading.
Binary Operator Overloading.
Overloading Assignment and Subscripting Operators.
More Signature Matching.
Polynomial: Type and Language Expectations.

8. Visitation: Iterators and Containers.
Visitation.
Iterators.
An Example: QUICKSORT.
Friendly Classes and Iterators.
Overloading Operator () for Indexing.
Overloading NEW and DELETE.
Pointer Operators and Smart Pointers.
Genericity with VOID.

9. Inheritance: Subtyping and Code Reuse.
A Derived Class.
Typing Conversions and Visibility.
Code Reuse: A Dynamic Array Bounds.
Code Reuse: A Binary Tree Class.
Virtual Functions.
Abstract Base Classes.
Multiple Inheritance.
Inheritance and Design.
Detailed C++ Considerations.

10. Parametric Polymorphism.
Template Class Stack.
Function Templates.
Class Templates.
Parameterizing the Class VECT.
Parameterizing QUICKSORT.
Parameterized Binary Search Tree.
Inheritance.
Ownership and Design Issues.
Detailed Considerations.

11. Exceptions.
Using ASSERT.H.
Using SIGNAL.H.
C++ Exceptions.
Throwing Exceptions.
TRY Blocks.
Handlers.
Exception Specification.
TERMINATE () and UNEXPECTED().
Example Exception Code.
The Philosophy of Error Recovery.

12. OOP Using C++.
OOP Language Requirements.
ADTs in Non-OOP Languages.
Clients and Manufacturers.
Reuse and Inheritance.
Polymorphism.
Language Complexity.
C++ OOP Bandwagon.
Platonism: Tabula Rasa Design.
Design Principles.
Schema, Diagrams and Tools.
Last Word.

Appendices.
ASCII Character Codes.
Operator Precedence and Associativity.
C++ Language Guide.
Input and Output.

Index.

Preface

PREFACE

This book is intended as an introduction to object-oriented programming(OOP) using ANSI C++ for the reader or student who already has programmingexperience. It explains C++ features in the context of OOP.

C++ has had many recent additions including STL, namespaces, RTTI, and thebool type. These can be used readily by someone already proficient in basicC++, but most books have yet to treat these topics. This book can provide ahandy guide to these new constructs.

The examples both within the book, and accessible at Addison-Wesley's website are intended to exhibit good programming style. The Addison-Wesley website, www.aw.com for this book contains the programs in the book as well asadjunct programs that illustrate points made in the book, or that flesh outshort pieces of programs. The programs available at the web site areintroduced by their .cpp or .h names.

C++, invented at Bell Labs by Bjarne Stroustrup in the mid-1980s, is apowerful modern successor language to C. C++ adds to C the concept ofclass, a mechanism for providing user-defined types also calledabstract data types. It supports object-oriented programming by thesemeans and by providing inheritance and run-time type binding.

By carefully developing working C++ programs, using the method ofdissection, this book presents a simple and thorough introduction to theprogramming process in C++. Dissection is a technique for explaining newelements in a program that the student is seeing for the first time. Ithighlights key points in the many examples of working code that are used toteach by example.

This book is intended for use in a firstcourse in programming in C++. Itcan be used as a supplementary text in an advanced programming course, datastructures course, software methodology course, comparative language course,or other courses where the instructor wants C++ to be the language of choice.Each chapter presents a number of carefully explained programs. Many programsand functions are dissected.

All the major pieces of code were tested. A consistent and proper codingstyle is adopted from the beginning. The style standard used is one chosen byprofessionals in the C++ community.

In conjunction with A Book on C, Third Edition by Al Kelley and IraPohl (Addison Wesley Longman, 1995), an integrated treatment of the Cand C++ programming languages and their use are presented which are notavailable elsewhere. For the beginner, a simpler introduction to the Clanguage is C by Dissection: The Essentials of C Programming, ThirdEdition by Al Kelley and Ira Pohl (Addison Wesley Longman, 1995).

Chapters contain:

    Object-Oriented Concept: Explains how an object-orientedprogramming concept is supported by a language feature.

    Working Code: Small examples of working code illustrateconcepts. Code illustrates a language feature or an OOP concept.

    Dissections: A program particularly illustrative of thechapter's themes is analyzed by dissection. Dissection is similar to astructured walk-through of the code. Its intention is to explain to the readernewly encountered programming elements and idioms.

    Pragmatics: Tips, pitfalls, nuances, and advice on thetopic.

    Summary: A succinct list of points are reiterated ashelpful chapter review.

    Exercises: The exercises test the student's knowledge ofthe language. Many exercises are intended to be done interactively whilereading the text. This encourages self-paced instruction by the reader. Theexercises also frequently extend the reader's knowledge to an advanced area ofuse.

The book incorporates:

    Object-Oriented Programming. Object-Orientation isstressed throughout. Chapter 1, "Why Object-Oriented Programming in C++?,"provides an introduction to C++'s use as an object-oriented programminglanguage. Chapter 2, "Native Types and Statements," shows data types,expressions, and simple statements. Chapter 3, "Functions and Pointers,"continues with similarities between functions and complex data types. The middle chapters show how classes work. Classes are the basis for abstract datatypes and object-oriented programming. The last few chapters give advanceddetails of the use of inheritance, templates, and exceptions. Chapter 12, "OOPUsing C++," discusses OOP and the Platonic programming philosophy. Thisbook develops in the programmer an appreciation of this point of view. At anypoint in the text the programmer can stop and use the new material.

    Teaching by Example. This book is a tutorial that stressesexamples of working code. From the start the student is introduced to fullworking programs. An interactive environment is assumed. Exercises areintegrated with the examples to encourage experimentation. Excessive detail isavoided in explaining the larger elements of writing working code. Eachchapter has several important example programs. Major elements of theseprograms are explained by dissection.

    Data Structures in C++. The text emphasizes many of thestandard data structures from computer science. Stacks, safe arrays,dynamically allocated multidimensional arrays, lists, trees, and strings areall implemented. Exercises extend the student's understanding of how toimplement and use these structures. Implementation is consistent with anabstract data type approach to software.

    Standard Template Library (STL). STL is explained and usedin Chapter 9, "Templates, Generic Programming, and STL." Many of the datastructure examples foreshadow its explanation and use. There is a strongemphasis on the template mechanism required for STL and the iterator idiomthat STL exploits.

    ANSI C++ language and iostream.h. For an existing,widely used language, C++ continues to change at a rapid pace. This book isbased on the most recent standard: the ANSI C++ Committee language documents.A succinct informal language reference is provided in Appendix C, "LanguageGuide." Chief additions include templates and exception handling. The examplesuse the iostream.h I/O library. This has replaced stdio.h usedin the C community. Use of the iostream.h library is described inAppendix D, "Input/Output."

    Reference Value in Appendices. There is an easilyaccessible informal language reference appendix: Appendix C, "Language Guide."Though this is not official, it specifies the language definition in a tersemanner. There is also an appendix on the key I/O libraries, iostream.hand stream.h: Appendix D, "Input/Output." A short guide to both thestring library and STL is given in Appendix E, "STL and StringLibraries."

    Idiomatic and Mainstream. The book attempts to stay withmainstream aspects of the language that are most important for the student andprofessional. It avoids arcane features of the language that are error proneor confusing. It is idiomatic in its use of code. The code is readily copiedand reapplied to other problems.

    Industry- and Course-Tested. It is the basis of manyon-site professional training courses given by the author, who has used itscontents to train professionals and students in various forums since 1986. Thevarious changes in the new edition are course-tested, and reflect considerableteaching and consulting experience by the author. The book is the basis for anextensive series of video training tapes and on-line courses. More informationon these courses is available at the author's web site at www.cse.ucsc.edu/~pohl.

Acknowledgments

My special thanks to my wife, Debra Dolsberry, who encouraged me throughoutthis project. She acted as book designer and technical editor for this secondedition. She developed appropriate formats and style sheets in FrameMaker 4.0and guided the transition process from the first edition in troff. Shealso implemented and tested all major pieces of code. Her carefulimplementations of the code and exercises led to many improvements. StephenClamage of TauMetric Corporation provided wonderfully insightful comments onlanguage detail. William Engles of University of Wisconsin described animproved shuffling routine for the poker example. Reviews for this additionwere provided by Jean Bell, Colorado School of Mines; Arthur Delcher, LoyolaUniversity; Konstantin Läufer, Loyola University; James L. Murphy,California State University; Kent Wooldridge, California State University;Shih-Ho Wang, University of California; David B. Teague, Western CarolinaUniversity; Lukasz Pruski, California State University; and David Gregory.Randal Burns and Hiroya Chiba, teaching assistants and computer sciencegraduate students of University of California at Santa Cruz, also contributedto the reviewing process.

The first edition had help, inspiration, and encouragement from, PeterApers, University of Twente, The Netherlands; Henri Bal, Vrije University, TheNetherlands; Michael Beeson, State University of California; Nan Borreson,Borland International; Douglas Campbell, University of Conneticut; CathyCollins, USC; Steve Demurjian; Robert Doran, University of Auckland, NewZealand; Robert Durling, UCSC; Daniel Edelson, UCSC; Anton Eliens, VrijeUniversity, The Netherlands; Ray Fujioka, USC; Thomas Judson, University ofPortland; Al Kelley, UCSC; Jim Kempf, Sun Microsystems, Incorporated; DarrellLong, UCSC; Charlie McDowell, UCSC; Laura Pohl, Cottage Consultants; Reind vande Riet, Vrije University, The Netherlands; Anthony Wasserman, IDE; and SalihYurttas, Texas A&M University.

The second edition was developed with the support of my editor J. CarterShanklin and editorial assistant Angela Buenning. Finally, I thank BjarneStroustrup for inventing such a powerful language and encouraging others tohelp teach it.



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