OECD Reviews of Labour Market and Social Policies: Russian Federation

OECD Reviews of Labour Market and Social Policies: Russian Federation

by Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (Editor)


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OECD Reviews of Labour Market and Social Policies: Russian Federation by Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development

The global financial crisis interrupted a protracted period of strong economic growth in the Russian Federation. Despite a large decline in output, job losses and hikes in unemployment remained rather modest, and much of the labour market adjustment took place through reduced working hours and, in particular, real wages. Notwithstanding the recent recovery, the Russian labour market remains characterised by significant structural imbalances resulting in widespread segmentation and large earnings inequalities.
To improve the balance between labour market flexibility and the protection of workers, the Russian Federation needs to reinforce its labour market institutions.
Poverty and income inequalities remain well above the OECD average. Family policy is focused on increasing birth rates, but is ineffective in reducing poverty as working adults and children make up 60% of the poor. Instead, social policy is focused on the elderly and disabled, and in recent years there has been significant increases in transfer payments to pensioners.
Recent reform is likely to "eradicate" poverty among pensioners, as measured by official benchmarks, but raises questions about the long-term financial sustainability of the private pensions system. Rapid population ageing further contributes to the need to raise the low standard pensionable ages in Russia and limit access to early pensions. The challenge for Russia will be to rebalance its social policy towards more effective support for parents to combine work and family life.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9789264118713
Publisher: Bernan Distribution
Publication date: 01/28/2012
Pages: 195
Product dimensions: 6.14(w) x 9.21(h) x 0.42(d)

Table of Contents

3412 2 Real wages rem

3612 3 The labour market is highly dyn

4712 4 Regional disparities are large but declining 56

5 Educational attainment of the workforce is high, but average quality is

6013 Notes 6413 References 6611 Chapter 2 Reinfo

6912 1 Introduction

7012 2 Employment protection is not a strong constraint on employers 7012 3 Enforceme

4 Collective bargaining has a limited impact on wa

7712 5 Expenditure on labour market policy is very low 8612 6


7 Conclusions 9713 Notes 10013 References 10413 Annex 2.A1 Employment Pro

10711 Chapter 3 Suppo

10912 1 In


2 Income dispa

11112 3 Social policy in the Russian Federatio

12212 4 Family policy 13512 5 Conclusions 14013 Notes 14413 References 146

Annex 3.A1 Selected

15313 Annex 3.A2

15511 Chapter 4


1 Introduction ? 16012 2 Poverty among pe

16112 3 Demographic change will have a

16512 4 Pension policy developments over the past 20 years 16

5 The 2010 pension sy

17312 6 Financial sustainability 18312 7 Conclusion

18801 Notes 19201 References 19401 Tables02 Table

Labour force status of the Russian population, 1992-2009 3702 Table 1.2 Undere

4302 Table


4902 Table 1.4 Voluntary and forced separations, 19

5302 Table 1.5 Informal employment in the Russian Federation,

5402 Table 2.A1.1 The Russian Federation's employment protection score

10702 Table 3.1 Children and young people are most

11902 Table 3.2 Living

12002 Tabl

Non-pension-related social cash transfers (not including health and housing services) 12602 Table 3.4 Monetisation of federal privileges and the associated payment rates to disabled cit

13302 Table 3.5 Combining work and family life is difficult in the Russian Federation 13602 T

Summary of income distribution statistics, official data for 1989-2007 15302 Table 3.A1.2 Re

15402 Table

Pension payments have increased sharply since 2008; on average, social pensions have incr

16302 Table 4.2 About one-third of the Russian Federation

16402 Table 4.3 The Russian Federation's population is projected to decrease and get older 16802 Table 4.4

17302 Table 4.5 Mandatory contribution rates for in

17502 Table 4.6 Life expectancy at normal pension ages by sex, 20

17802 Table 4.7 Pension replacement rates for a m

18302 Table 4.8 Pension revenu

18401 Figures02 Figure 1.1 GDP and GDP per

3402 Figure 1.2 Percentage change in real G

3602 Figure 1.3 Cyclical change i

3902 Figure 1.4 Yo

4102 Figure 1.5 Relative importance of the extensive and intensive margins of labour adjustment in

4202 Figure 1.6 Cyclical changes in employment, earnings and labour productivi

4402 Figure 1.7 Worker turnover in Russian large and medium-sized enterpri

4802 Figure 1.8 Use of temporary contracts in the Russian Federation, 1999-2009 5002 Figure 1.9 Evolution o

5102 Figure 1.10 Average tenure by educa

5202 Figure 1.11 Wage inequali

Figure 1.12 Average monthly wage and share in total employment by type of ownership, 2

5602 Figure 1.13 Regional disparities in the Russian Federation, 1992-2009 5802 Figure 1.14 Regional

5902 Figure 1.15 Educational attainm

6102 Figure 1.16 Annual ex


Figure 2.1 Strictness of employment protection in the Russian Federation and OECD, 200

7102 Figure 2.2 Number of labour cases per 1 000 of the labour force 7502 Figure 2.3 Type of registered

7702 Figure 2.4 Number of days on strike per thousand emp

8102 Figure 2.5 Ratio of minimum wage to average wage, level a

8302 Figure 2.6 Earnings distribution of full-time employ

8502 Figure 2.7 Expenditures on labour marke

8802 Figure 2.8 Net i

9002 Figure 3.1 The Russian Federation has high poverty ra

11202 Figure 3.2 Income disparities appear to have changed little in the ne

11202 Figure 3.3 Absolute poverty has fallen since the beginning of the new millennium, but relative income gains

11502 Figure 3.4 Poverty gaps have been declining for mo

11802 Figure 3.5 Poverty rates in Moscow are below the Russian average 12102 Figure 3.6 Public social sp

12502 Figure 3.7 Public so


Figure 3.8 Disability benefit receipt increased sharply during the 1990s, but inflows have declined in recent years and the stock of beneficiaries has stabilised 13002 Figure 3.9 Fertility rates

13902 Figure 3.A1.1 The structure of spending on non-pension related social cash transfers befor

15402 Figure 3.A2.1 Conditional probabilities of remaining in poverty and

15602 Figure 4.1 Poverty among those aged 65 and over in the Russian Federation is tw

16202 Figure 4.2 About a quarter of people aged over 65 are poor 16402

Life expectancy is low in the Russian Federation and has not increased over the past 40 years 16602 Figure 4.3b Li


Figure 4.4 Public spending on pensions in the Russian Federation is below the OECD average but underlying trends

16902 Figure 4.5 Pensions in payment are volatile relative to w

17102 Figure 4.6 Replacement rates for mandatory pensions in the Russian Federation are around the OECD ave

18202 Figure 4.7 Pension contribution rates in the Russian Federation are well above the


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