The generation of offshore energy is a rapidly growing sector, competing for space in an already busy seascape. This book brings together the ecological, economic, and social implications of the spatial conflict this growth entails. Covering all energy-generation types (wind, wave, tidal, oil, and gas), it explores the direct and indirect impacts the growth of offshore energy generation has on both the marine environment and the existing uses of marine space.
Chapters explore main issues associated with offshore energy, such as the displacement of existing activities and the negative impacts it can have on marine species and ecosystems. Chapters also discuss how the growth of offshore energy generation presents new opportunities for collaboration and co-location with other sectors, for example, the co-location of wild-capture fisheries and wind farms.
The book integrates these issues and opportunities, and demonstrates the importance of holistic marine spatial planning for optimising the location of offshore energy-generation sites. It highlights the importance of stakeholder engagement in these planning processes and the role of integrated governance, with illustrative case studies from the United States, United Kingdom, northern Europe, and the Mediterranean. It also discusses trade-off analysis and decision theory and provides a range of tools and best practices to inform future planning processes.
About the Author
Katherine L. Yates is a Lecturer at The University of Salford, United Kingdom, specialising in spatial planning, distribution modelling, and stakeholder engagement. She is also a National Environmental Research Council Knowledge Exchange Fellow working with the United Kingdom Marine Management Organisation.
Corey J. A. Bradshaw is Matthew Flinders Fellow in Global Ecology and Professor in the College of Science and Engineering at Flinders University in Adelaide, Australia. His research is mainly in the area of global-change ecologyhow human endeavour and climate fluctuations have altered past, present, and future ecosystems.
Table of Contents
Introduction: Marine spatial planning in the age of offshore energy
Katherine L. Yates, Johanna Polsenberg, Andronikos Kafas and Corey J. A. Bradshaw
Chapter 1 Marine spatial planning: an idea whose time has come
Charles N. Ehler
Chapter 2 Methods and utility of ecosystem service trade-off analysis for guiding marine planning of offshore energy
Joel Stevens, Sarah E. Lester and Crow White
Chapter 3 It starts with a conversation: achieving conservation goals in collaboration with the offshore energy industry
Johanna Polsenberg and Anna Kilponen
Chapter 4 Challenges and opportunities for governance in marine spatial planning
Chapter 5 Legal aspects of marine spatial planning
Erik van Doorn and Sarah Fiona Gahlen
Chapter 6 Displacement of existing activities
Andronikos Kafas, Penelope Donohue, Ian Davies and Beth E. Scott
Chapter 7 Tracing regime shifts in the provision of coastal-marine cultural ecosystem services
Kira Gee and Benjamin Burkhard
Chapter 8 Environmental implications of offshore energy
Andrew B. Gill, Silvana N.R. Birchenough, Alice R. Jones, Adrian Judd, Simon Jude, Ana Payo-Payo and Ben Wilson
Chapter 9 Meaningful stakeholder participation in marine spatial planning with offshore energy
Katherine L. Yates
Chapter 10 Capturing benefits: opportunities for the co-location of offshore energy and fisheries
Tara Hooper, Matthew Ashley and Melanie Austen
Chapter 11 Compatibility of offshore energy installations with marine protected areas
Ruth H. Thurstan, Katherine L. Yates and Bethan C. O’Leary
Chapter 12 Marine spatial planning and stakeholder collaboration: advancing offshore wind energy and ocean ecosystem protection in New England
Priscilla M. Brooks and Tricia K. Jedele
Chapter 13 Co-locating offshore wind farms and marine protected areas: a United Kingdom perspective
Matthew Ashley, Melanie Austen, Lynda Rodwell and Stephen C. Mangi
Chapter 14 Conservation challenges in the face of new hydrocarbon discoveries in the Mediterranean Sea
Tessa Mazor, Noam Levin, Eran Brokovich and Salit Kark
Chapter 15 Siting offshore energy arrays: a case study using interactive marine planning
Karen A. Alexander, Ron Janssen and Timothy G. O’Higgins
Chapter 16 The future of marine spatial planning
Corey J. A. Bradshaw, Lucy Greenhill and Katherine L. Yates