On Foundations Of Seismology: Bringing Idealizations Down To Earth

On Foundations Of Seismology: Bringing Idealizations Down To Earth

by James Robert Brown, Michael A Slawinski

Hardcover

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9789814329491
Publisher: World Scientific Publishing Company, Incorporated
Publication date: 06/14/2017
Pages: 184
Product dimensions: 6.30(w) x 9.20(h) x 0.60(d)

Table of Contents

List of Figures xiii

Acknowledgments xv

Preface xvii

1 Aspects of seismological theory 1

Preliminary remarks 1

1.1 Seismology 1

1.2 Theories and models 6

1.3 Choice of models 10

1.3.1 Underdetermination of theory by evidence 10

1.3.2 Simplicity 16

1.3.3 Theory-ladenness of observation 18

1.1 Methodology 18

1.4.1 Inference to best explanation 18

1.4.2 Falsificationism 19

Closing remarks 20

2 Nature of science and its methods 23

Preliminary remarks 23

2.1 Epistemological issues 24

2.1.1 On scientific methods 24

2.1.2 Positivism and empiricism 24

2.1.3 Popper and falsification 30

2.1.4 Kuhn and paradigms 34

2.1.5 Historical approaches 39

2.1.6 Personal and social values 41

2.2 Ontological issues 43

2.2.1 Realism 43

2.2.2 Instrumentalism 45

Closing remarks 47

3 On continua and models 49

Preliminary remarks 49

3.1 On mathematical continuum 50

3.2 Continuum mechanics: Primitive concepts, first principles 56

3.2.1 Predictions, observations, justifications 56

3.2.2 Logical structure of theory 58

3.2.3 Material body 60

3.2.4 Euclidean spacetime 61

3.2.5 Stress vector 61

3.2.6 Stress tensor and stress principle 62

3.2.7 Assumptions and axioms 63

3.3 Applied mathematics 67

3.4 Models, fictions and idealizations 69

3.4.1 Analogies 69

3.4.2 Physical models 70

3.4.3 Data models 71

3.4.4 Mathematical models 71

3.4.5 Fictions and idealizations 72

3.5 Seismological continuum 73

Closing remarks 76

4 Continuum mechanics: General principles, constitutive relations 77

Preliminary remarks 77

4.1 Two-part theory 78

4.2 General principles 80

4.2.1 Elasticity-theory requirements 80

4.2.2 Balance of mass 80

4.2.3 Balance of linear momentum 81

4.2.4 Balance of angular momentum 81

4.3 Constitutive relations 82

4.3.1 Specific theories 82

4.3.2 Determinism 84

4.3.3 Local action 84

4.3.4 Material frame indifference 85

4.3.5 Equipresence 85

Closing remarks 85

5 Hookean solids 87

Preliminary remarks 87

5.1 Models of physical realm 88

5.2 Mathematical expressions 89

5.3 Symmetries 94

5.3.1 Symmetry types 94

5.3.2 Index symmetry 94

5.3.3 Material symmetry 95

5.4 Model limitations 99

5.4.1 Thermal effects 99

5.4.2 Interaction between waves and continua 100

Closing remarks 101

6 Forward and inverse problems 103

Preliminary remarks 103

6.1 Inference of terrestrial properties 104

6.2 Forward problem 105

6.3 Inverse problem 109

Closing remarks 111

7 Intertheory and intratheory relations 115

Preliminary remarks 115

7.1 Reduction and emergence 116

7.2 On high-frequency approximation 118

7.2.1 Ray theory as approximation 118

7.2.2 Ray theory and banana-doughnut 119

7.3 Relations among models 120

7.4 Geology and geophysics 121

7.5 Historical relations 123

7.6 Seismology as field theory 124

Closing remarks 126

Afterword 127

Bibliography 133

Subject Index 141

Name Index 155

About the Authors and Illustrator 161

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