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On the Origin of Phyla
     

On the Origin of Phyla

by James W. Valentine
 

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ISBN-10: 0226845494

ISBN-13: 9780226845494

Pub. Date: 07/01/2006

Publisher: University of Chicago Press


Owing its inspiration and title to On the Origin of Phlya, James W. Valentine's ambitious book synthesizes and applies the vast treasury of theory and research collected in the century and a half since Darwin's time. By investigating the origins of life's diversity, Valentine unlocks the mystery of the origin of phyla.

One of the twentieth century's most

Overview


Owing its inspiration and title to On the Origin of Phlya, James W. Valentine's ambitious book synthesizes and applies the vast treasury of theory and research collected in the century and a half since Darwin's time. By investigating the origins of life's diversity, Valentine unlocks the mystery of the origin of phyla.

One of the twentieth century's most distinguished paleobiologists, Valentine here integrates data from molecular genetics, evolutionary developmental biology, embryology, comparative morphology, and paleontology into an analysis of interest to scholars from any of these fields. He begins by examining the sorts of evidence that can be gleaned from fossils, molecules, and morphology, then reviews and compares the basic morphology and development of animal phyla, emphasizing the important design elements found in the bodyplans of both living and extinct phyla. Finally, Valentine undertakes the monumental task of developing models to explain the origin and early diversification of animal phyla, as well as their later evolutionary patterns.

Truly a magnum opus, On the Origin of Phyla will take its place as one of the classic scientific texts of the twentieth century, affecting the work of paleontologists, morphologists, and developmental, molecular, and evolutionary biologists for decades to come.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780226845494
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
Publication date:
07/01/2006
Edition description:
1
Pages:
608
Product dimensions:
7.00(w) x 10.00(h) x 1.50(d)

Related Subjects

Table of Contents

Contents
Preface....................xxiii
PART ONE Evidence of the Origins of Metazoan Phyla....................1
1 The Nature of Phyla....................7
Phyla Are Morphologically Based Branches of the Tree of Life....................7
Genealogical Histories Can Be Traced in Trees, Which Are Positional Structures....................13
Natural Biological Hierarchies Are Nested Structures of Functional Entities That Emerge When Complex Systems Are Organized....................16
Natural Hierarchies Are Formed by Trees....................22
The Linnean Hierarchy Is Quasi-Natural....................24
Trees and Hierarchies Have Very Distinct Properties....................25
Cladistics Is a Systematics Based on Trees....................27
Phyla Have Split Personalities....................31
Molecular Branchings Can Define Clades, while Morphological Features Define Linnean Taxa....................32
Systematic Hierarchies and Trees: A Summary....................37
2 Design Elements in the Bodyplans of Phyla....................40
Cells Are the Basic Building Blocks of Metazoan Bodies....................40
Cells Are Integrated into Tissues by Protein Bindings or Matrices....................45
Metazoans Have Several Major Types of Tissues....................47
Organs and Organ Systems Are Formed of Tissues....................49
Organisms Are Best Understood as Developmental Systems....................50
Many Bodyplan Features Reflect Locomotory Techniques....................64
Symmetry and Seriation Are the Principal Descriptors of Body Style....................66
Evolutionary Changes in Body Size Occur throughoutMetazoan History....................70
Morphological Complexity Is Not a Simple Topic....................72
3 Development and Bodyplans....................76
The Evolution of Developmental Systems Underpins the Evolution of Bodyplans....................76
The English Language and Genomes Both Have Combinatorial, Hierarchical Structures....................77
The Metazoan Gene Is a Complex of Regulatory, Transcribed, and Translated Parts....................80
Regulatory Signals Are Produced by Trans-Regulatory Systems....................83
Genomic Complexity Is a Function of Gene Numbers and Interactions....................86
Metazoan Genomes Display Surprising Patterns of Similarities and Differences among Taxa....................88
Developmental Genomes May Evolve on Many, Semidecomposable Levels....................103
Regulatory Gene Systems Organize Complexity....................112
4 Morphological and Molecular Phylogenies....................115
Assumed Evolutionary Histories Affect Morphologically Based Phylogenetic Hypotheses....................115
Many of the Classic Phylogenetic Hypotheses Involve Assumptions as to the Phylogenetic History of the Coelom....................119
Evolutionary Histories Affect Molecularly Based Estimates of the Timing, Branching Patterns, and Order of Origins of Phyla....................123
Morphological and Molecular Homologies Are Decomposable....................131
There Is a Large Variety of Ways to Form Trees from Molecular Sequences....................132
Although Molecular Phylogenies Produce Conflicting Topologies, They Have Also Produced a Growing Consensus on Major Alliances of Phyla....................138
Combined Morphological/Molecular Phylogenies of Phyla May Require Improved Assessments of Homologies to Be Successful....................143
Stratigraphic Data Can Add Useful Information to Phylogenetic Hypotheses....................146
The Alliances of Phyla Indicated by Molecular Methods Provide Evidence for Evaluating the Origin and Early History of Phyla....................148
5 The Fossil Record....................153
The Stratigraphic Record Is Incomplete in a Spotty Way....................153
The Marine Fossil Record, while Incomplete, Yields Useful Samples of a Rather Consistent Fraction of the Fauna....................160
There Are Ways of Coping with Incomplete Records....................167
The Neoproterozoic-Cambrian Fossil Record Provides the Only Direct Evidence of Early Metazoan Bodyplans....................168
There Is a Vast Range of Hypotheses That Attempt to Explain the Cambrian Explosion....................189
In Sum, the Cambrian Fossils Imply an Explosion of Bodyplans, but the Underlying Causes Remain Uncertain....................194
PART TWO The Metazoan Phyla....................197
6 Prebilaterians and Earliest Crown Bilaterians....................201
Sponges and Spongiomorphs....................201
Cnidarians and Cnidariomorphs....................214
Ctenophora....................228
Placozoa....................232
Myxozoa....................233
Diversification of Prebilaterian Metazoa....................234
Acoelomorpha: Earliest Crown Bilaterians?....................236
7 Protostomes: The Ecdysozoa....................241
Priapulida....................241
Kinorhyncha....................244
Loricifera....................246
Nematomorpha....................248
Nematoda....................250
Paleoscolecidae....................256
Relationships of Paracoelomate Ecdysozoans....................257
Onychophora....................257
Tardigrada....................262
Arthropoda....................264
Some Branch Points within the Ecdysozoa....................283
Early History of the Lobopodian and Arthropodan Clades....................286
8 Protostomes: Lophotrochozoa 1: Eutrochozoans....................288
Platyhelminthes: Rhabditophora and Catenulida....................288
Mollusca and Mollusklike Forms....................295
Annelida....................312
Sipuncula....................326
Nemertea....................328
Mesozoans: Rhombozoa and Orthonectida....................331
Fossil Groups That May Be Eutrochozoans....................333
Possible Branch Points within Eutrochozoa....................337
9 Protostomes: Lophotrochozoa 2: Lophophorates....................339
Bryozoa....................339
Phoronida....................345
Brachiopoda....................348
Lophophorate Relationships....................356
10 Protostomes: Paracoelomates....................360
Gastrotricha....................361
Rotifera....................363
Acanthocephala....................365
Entoprocta....................368
Cycliophora....................370
Gnathostomulida....................372
Chaetognatha....................374
Phylogenetic Schemes for Paracoelomates....................377
11 Deuterostomes....................381
Hemichordata....................383
Echinodermata....................391
Vetulicolia....................406
Invertebrate Chordata....................406
Early Vertebrata....................418
Chordate Ancestry....................421
PART THREE Evolution of the Phyla....................425
12 Phanerozoic History of Phyla....................429
Diversification Patterns of Higher Taxa with Mineralized Skeletons Can Be Evaluated by Richnesses and Disparities....................431
Macroevolutionary Dynamics of Phyla Run the Gamut from Stability to Volatility....................445
Clade Histories of Invertebrate Taxa with Mineralized Skeletons Reflect Turnover Dynamics....................452
Is the Number of Phyla Related to the Gross Heterogeneity of the Marine Environment?....................460
The Late Neoproterozoic and Early Cambrian Pattern of Appearances Is Consistent with Patterns Found throughout the Phanerozoic....................463
13 Metazoan Evolution during the Prelude to the Cambrian Explosion....................465
Metazoan Multicellularity Evolved from Protistan Pluricellularity....................466
Diploblastic Somatic Architecture Evolved from Sponges....................471
The Nature of Early Bilateria Is Widely Debated....................475
A Benthic Hypothesis Can Explain Both Fossil and Molecular Data and Is Not Incompatible with Developmental Patterns....................484
Ectoderm, Endoderm, and Endomesoderm Are Probably Homologous throughout the Eumetazoa....................492
Crown Paracoelomate Bodyplans Largely Represent a Radiation of Small-Bodied Protostomes....................493
Metazoan Complexity Increased before the Cambrian Explosion, Perhaps Chiefly during the Early Cambrian....................493
14 Metazoan Evolution during the Cambrian Explosion and Its Aftermath....................497
Independent Trends in Body-Size Increases Produced the Major Bilaterian Alliances....................497
The Homology of Body Cavities across Bilateria Is Unlikely....................498
Systems Associated with Body Cavities, Such as Blood Vascular and Nephridial Systems, May Be Homoplastic....................500
Body-Size Increases Are Consistent with the Early Cambrian Evolution of Planktotrophy and Divergences in Early Development....................503
There Are Similarities in the Gross Morphological Adaptations of Some Phyla in the Separate Alliances....................505
The Cambrian Explosion Produced Widespread Homoplasy: A Summary....................513
Much Evolution of the Developmental Genome Occurred in the Service of Bodyplan Originations: A Summary....................514
Why Are Problems of Early Metazoan Evolution So Hard?....................516
Appendix: The Geologic Time Scale....................521
Glossary....................525
References....................533
Index....................607

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