While much has been achieved in understanding and managing weather effects and erosion phenomena affecting ancient imagery within the relatively protected environments of caves and rock-shelters, the same cannot be said of rock-art panels situated in the open-air. Despite the fact that the number of known sites has risen dramatically in recent decades there are few examples in which the weathering and erosion dynamics are under investigation with a view to developing proposals to mitigate the impact of natural and cultural processes. Most of the work being done in different parts of the world appears to be ad-hoc, with minimal communication on such matters between teams and with the wider archaeological community.
This richly illustrated book evaluates rock-art conservation in an holistic way, bringing together researchers from across the world to share experiences of work in progress or recently completed. The chapters focus on a series of key themes: documentation projects and resource assessments; the identification and impact assessment of weathering/erosion processes at work in open-air rock-art sites; the practicalities of potential or implemented conservation interventions; experimentation and monitoring programs; and general management issues connected with public presentation and the demands of ongoing research investigations. Consideration is given to the conservation of open-air rock-art imagery from many periods and cultural traditions across the Old and New Worlds. This timely volume will be of interest to conservators, managers, and researchers dealing with aesthetic and ethical issues as well as technical and practical matters regarding the conservation of open-air rock-art sites.
About the Author
Timothy Darvill is Professor of Archaeology in the Faculty of Science and Technology, Bournemouth University, UK.
António Pedro Batarda Fernandes is a postdoctoral research fellow in the Faculty of Science and Technology, Bournemouth University, UK, and the Côa Museum and Archaeological Park, Portugal.
Table of Contents
1. Introduction Timothy Darvill and António Pedro Batarda Fernandes 2. Approaches to the Conservation and Management of Open-Air Rock-Art Panels in England, United Kingdom Timothy Darvill 3. The Preservation and Care of Rock-Art in Changing Environments: A View from Northeastern England, United Kingdom Myra J. Giesen, Aron D. Mazel, David W. Graham, and Patricia B. Warke 4. Pride and Prejudice: The Challenges of Conserving and Managing Rock Art in the Landscape of Northern England, United Kingdom, Through Public Participation Kate E. Sharpe 5. Irish Open-Air Rock-Art: Issues of Erosion and Management Elizabeth Shee Twohig and Ken Williams 6. The Open-Air Rock-Art Site at Leirfall, Central Norway, Within the Context of Northern Scandinavian Rock-Art Conservation and Management Practices Over the Past 50 Years Elizabeth E. Peacock, Eva Lindgaard, Kalle Sognnes, Roar Sæterhaug, and Gordon Turner-Walker 7. Experiences Documenting Petroglyphs at Lake Onega, Russia, 1998–2012 Nadezhda V. Lobanova 8. ‘Preservation by Record’: The Case from Eastern Scandinavia Liliana Janik 9. Aspect and Rock-Art Conservation: Preliminary Meteorological Data Regarding the Côa Valley, Portugal, Open-Air Rock-Art Complex António Pedro Batarda Fernandes 10. Lonely Stones: Preservation of Megalithic Art in the Iberian Peninsula Fernando Carrera Ramírez 11. The Conservation of Spanish Levantine Rock-Art in Aragón, Spain, Using 3-D Laser Scanning Manuel Bea and Jorge Angás 12. Conservation Programs in Chaco Cultural National Historical Park, USA: Outgrowths and Consequences of Recording Projects Jane Kolber and Donna Yoder 13. Managing Chaos: Vandalism Rock-Art at the Okotoks Erratic, Alberta, Canada Jack W. Brink 14. The Conservation Diagnostic Processes in Columbian Rock-Art Research Guillermo Muñoz and Judith Trujillo 15. Conservation of Rock-Art Sites in Northeast Brazil Maria Conceição Soares Meneses Lage and Welington Lage 16. Past and Present, Traditional and Scientific: The Conservation and Management of Rock-Art Sites in Australia Melissa Marshall and Paul S.C. Tacon 17. The Challenges of Conserving Rock-Art at the uKhahlamba Drakensberg Park, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa Ndukuyakhe Ndlovu 18. Non-Invasive Methods for In-Situ Assessing and Monitoring of the Vulnerability of Rock-Art Elizabeth Bemand, Haida Liang, & Martin Bencsik 19. Computer-Aided Simulation of Natural Erosion Processes on Rock-Art: A Mathematical Tool for Conservation Studies and Absolute Dating Paolo Emilio Bagnoli 20. Rock-Art: An Overview of Recent Developments and Initiatives by UNESCO and ICOMOS with Especial Reference to World Heritage Sites Amanda Chadburn