ISBN-10:
3527408606
ISBN-13:
9783527408603
Pub. Date:
03/29/2010
Publisher:
Wiley
Optical Sensors: Basics and Applications / Edition 1

Optical Sensors: Basics and Applications / Edition 1

by Jorg Haus

Hardcover

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9783527408603
Publisher: Wiley
Publication date: 03/29/2010
Pages: 189
Product dimensions: 6.80(w) x 9.60(h) x 0.60(d)

About the Author

Jörg Haus obtained his academic degrees from the Physics Department of the University of Giessen, Germany. He then gained more than 10 years of experience in the fields of high-precision metrology and optical sensors. Dr. Haus has been responsible for several research and product development projects in the field of optical sensors. He currently holds the position of product manager for optical microscopes at a German company. Dr. Haus has authored numerous original publications on grating-optical sensors and contributed to Wiley-VCH's 'Encyclopedia of Applied Physics' and 'Optics Encyclopedia'.

Table of Contents

Preface XI

Introduction 1

References 3

Part 1 The Optical Sensor Construction Kit 5

2 Light Sources 7

2.1 Important Properties of Light Sources 7

2.2 Thermal Light Sources 8

2.3 Line Sources 12

2.4 Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) 14

2.5 Lasers 18

3 Photodetectors 27

3.1 Photomultipliers 27

3.2 Photodiodes 30

3.3 Other Detector Types 31

3.4 Imaging Detectors 33

3.5 Detector Noise 35

4 Optical Elements 37

4.1 Optical Materials 37

4.2 Mirrors, Prisms and Lenses 39

4.3 Dispersive Elements: Prisms and Gratings 42

4.4 Optical Filters 43

4.5 Polarizers 44

4.6 Optical Fibers 46

4.7 Modulators 49

References 53

Part 2 Optical Sensors and Their Applications 55

5 Eyes: The Examples of Nature 57

5.1 The Compound Eyes of Insects 57

5.2 Nature's Example: The Human Eye 58

6 Optical Sensor Concepts 63

6.1 Switches 63

6.1.1 Light Barriers 63

6.1.2 Rain Sensor 65

6.2 Spatial Dimensions 66

6.2.1 Distance 66

6.2.2 Displacement 71

6.2.3 Velocity 75

6.2.4 Angular Velocity 83

6.3 Strain 86

6.4 Temperature 90

6.5 Species Determination and Concentration 93

6.5.1 Spectrometry 94

6.5.2 Polarimetry 98

6.5.3 Ellipsometry 102

6.5.4 Refractometry 104

6.5.5 Particle Density and Particle Number 106

6.5.6 Fluorescence Detection 111

6.6 Surface Topography 114

6.6.1 Chromatic Confocal Sensors 115

6.6.2 Conoscopic Holography 117

6.6.3 Multiwavelength Interferometry (MWLI) 118

6.6.4 White-Light Interferometry 119

6.6.5 Near-Field Optical Microscopy 122

6.6.6 Contouring: Structured-Light Techniques 123

6.6.7 Concepts: Cross-Correlation Analysis and 2D Fourier-Transform Techniques 125

6.7 Deformation and Vibration Analysis 127

6.7.1 Laser Vibrometers 127

6.7.2 Speckle-Pattern Interferometry 129

6.7.3 Holographic Interferometry 132

6.8 Wavefront Sensing and Adaptive Optics 135

6.9 Determination of the Sun Angle 138

6.10 Determination of Age 140

References 143

Part 3 Optics and Sensors at Work: A Laser-Spectroscopic Experiment 147

7 The Measurement Problem 149

8 The Physical Principles behind the Experiment 151

9 Spectroscopic Setups of the Experiment 155

9.1 The Single-Step Approach 155

9.2 The Two-Step Approach 158

References 165

Summary 167

Glossary 169

Index 173

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