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The Collins College Outline for Organic Chemistry begins with atomic orbitals and bonding and covers all critical topics, including conformations, acids and bases, elimination reaions, addiion reaions, amines, amino acids, carbohydrates and nucleic acids, and everything in between. Completely revised and updated by Dr. Michael B. Smith, each chapter of Organic Chemistry includes a test yourself seion with answers and complete explanations at the end of each chapter. Also included are bibliographies for further reading, as well as numerous graphs, charts, and examples.
The Collins College Outlines are a completely revised, in-depth series of study guides for all areas of study, including the Humanities, Social Sciences, Mathematics, Science, Language, History, and Business. Featuring the most up-to-date information, each book is written by a seasoned professor in the field and focuses on a simplified and general overview of the subje for college students and, where appropriate, Advanced Placement students. Each Collins College Outline is fully integrated with the major curriculum for its subje and is a perfe supplement for any standard textbook.
About the Author
Michael Farris Smith has been awarded the Transatlantic Review Award, Brick Streets Press Short Story Award, Mississippi Arts Commission Literary Arts Fellowship, and the Alabama Arts Council Fellowship Award for Literature. He is a graduate of Mississippi State and the Center for Writers at Southern Miss. He lives in Columbus, Mississippi, with his wife and two daughters.
Read an Excerpt
Structure and Bonding
This chapter will introduce the carbon atom
and the covalent bonds that join
carbon atoms together in organic molecules.
The most fundamental properties
of atoms and of covalent bonds will be introduced,
including hybridization,electronic structure,
molecular orbital theory and the shape of
organic molecules. The fundamental causes of
the physical properties exhibited by organic
molecules will also be introduced.
1. 1. Atomic Orbitals
What Is The Working Structure Of An Atom?
Each atom of a given element possesses a fixed number of protons, neutrons and electrons. The protons and neutrons comprise the nucleus and the electrons are located in discreet energy levels (quanta) from the nucleus. The nucleus is electrically positive and electrons are negatively charged. When carbon forms a covalent bond (two electrons are in each bond, represented by C-X, where X is any atom; see section 2.3), it uses electrons from the outermost shell. These electrons are conveniently described by their "shape" and distance relative to the nucleus.
What Are Atomic Orbitals And What Are Molecular Orbitals?
The space occupied by electrons is described by the term orbital. Different orbitals are described by their distance from the nucleus (the energy required to 'hold' the electron) as well as the three-dimensional configuration of their electrons. If the electrons are associated with the atom of a free element, they are said to be in atomic orbitals. Once bonds have been formed, the atomic elements become part of molecules, and theelectronic positions are described by molecular orbitals.