Origin of Anti-Tumor Immunity Failure in Mammals

Origin of Anti-Tumor Immunity Failure in Mammals

by Ivan Bubanovic

Paperback(Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 2004)

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781475779707
Publisher: Springer US
Publication date: 06/21/2013
Edition description: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 2004
Pages: 253
Product dimensions: 5.98(w) x 9.02(h) x 0.02(d)

Table of Contents

Chapter 1The Vertebrate Immune System1
1.1The Vertebrate Immune System Evolution1
1.1.1Macrophages3
1.1.2Lymphocytes and Lymphoid Organs4
1.1.2.1Origin of TCR(s)9
1.1.3Cytokines throughout Vertebrate Evolution12
1.2MHC Molecules--Nature, Function and Evolution17
1.2.1MHC System in Mammals18
1.2.1.1The Structure18
1.2.1.2The Function19
1.2.1.3Non-Classical MHC Molecules (class Ib)21
1.2.2The MHC System in Non-mammals22
1.2.3Ontogeny of MHC Molecules Expression24
1.2.4The Evolution of MHC Molecules25
1.2.5Mechanisms of MHC Molecules Variability28
1.2.5.1Viruses like Inductors of MHC Variability30
1.2.5.2The Heterozygote Advantage Hypothesis31
1.2.5.3The Moving Target Hypothesis34
1.2.5.4Shifting MHC Presentation Holes35
1.2.5.5Shifting T-Cell Recognition Holes35
1.2.6Variability of TAP, LMP and Other Immunological Genes36
1.2.7Regulation of MHC Genes Transcription37
1.2.7.1Cytokines which Modulate Expression of MHC Class I Molecules39
1.2.7.2Cytokines which Modulate Expression of MHC Class II Molecules40
1.3Auto-Immunity - a by Product of Adoptive Immunity41
1.3.1Sex Hormones and Auto-immunity44
1.3.2Evolutionary Pressure of Auto-immunity46
References48
Chapter 2Alloimmunity and Pregnancy57
2.1Alloimmunity57
2.1.1Allorecognition58
2.1.1.1Dichotomy of Direct and Indirect Allorecognition59
2.1.1.2Secondary (auto-immune-like) Alloimmune Response61
2.1.2Xenoreactivity61
2.1.3Alloimmunity in Vertebrates63
2.2Alloimmunity and Viviparity66
2.2.1Evolution of Viviparity69
2.2.1.1Viviparity in Cartilagofish69
2.2.1.2Viviparity in Reptiles70
2.2.1.3Viviparity in Mammals73
2.2.1.4Expression of MHC molecules on Different Types of Placenta in Mammals75
2.2.2Evolutionary Pressure of Alloimmunity78
References81
Chapter 3Anti-tumor Immunity Failure in Mammals85
3.1Mechanisms of Anti-Tumor Immunity85
3.1.1Antigen Processing/Presenting Machinery86
3.1.2Antigen Recognition by TCR90
3.1.3DSs Maturation/Activation91
3.1.3.1Heat Shock Proteins (HSP)92
3.1.3.2Role and Expression of Co-Stimulatory Molecules94
3.1.3.3DCs and Th1/Th2 Dichotomy96
3.1.4Th1 Type and Th2 Type of Anti-tumor Immune Response98
3.2Are Tumors Immunogenic?100
3.2.1Tumor-Associated/Specific Antigens101
3.2.1.1Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) and Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP)103
3.2.1.2Differentiation Antigens (DA)103
3.2.1.3Viral Antigens (VA)104
3.2.1.4Oncogenic Fusion Proteins (OFP)104
3.3Basic Mechanisms of Anti-Tumor Immunity Failure in Mammals105
3.3.1Altered Expression of MHC Molecules and Tumor Antigens by Tumor Cells105
3.3.1.1Expression of HLA-G on Tumor Cells as a Mechanism of Immunosurveillance107
3.3.2Altered Expression of Co-stimulatory and Adhesion Molecules by Tumor Cells and APCs108
3.3.3Downregulation of Anti-tumor Immune Response by Cytokines110
3.3.4Th1/Th2 Immunity and Tumor Escape112
3.3.5Downregulation of Immune Response by Molecules Other than Cytokines114
3.3.6Anti-tumor Immunity Failure by Apoptosis and/or Anergy Induction115
3.3.6.1Extrathymic Lymphocyte Maturation and Selection117
3.3.6.2Failure of Blood-thymus Barrier120
3.3.7Immunomodulatory Role of Prostaglandine123
References126
Chapter 4Immunosurveillance Mechanisms of the Fetoplacental Unit135
4.1"Seminal Priming" and Successful Pregnancy135
4.1.1Role of TGF-[beta] in "Seminal Priming"138
4.2Decidua and Trophoblast138
4.2.1Decidual Immunocompetent Cells139
4.2.1.1Decidual NK Cells140
4.2.1.2Class Ib MHC Molecules and Activity of Decidual Immune Cells142
4.2.1.3Decidual T Cells144
4.2.1.4Decidual Macrophages148
4.2.1.5Cytokine Network of the Decidua150
4.2.2The Trophoblast153
4.2.2.1Trophoblast Expression of MHC Molecules154
4.2.3Pregnancy and Cytokines155
4.2.3.1IL-10156
4.2.3.2TGF-[beta]158
4.2.3.3IL-4159
4.2.3.4IL-6160
4.2.3.5IL-2161
4.2.3.6IL-12162
4.2.3.7IL-15163
4.2.3.8IL-18163
4.2.3.9IFN-[gamma]164
4.2.3.10TNF-[alpha] and [beta]165
4.2.4Activity of Trophoblast TAP Machinery167
4.3Prostaglandine168
4.3.1Immunomodulatory Role of Prostaglandine169
4.4Sex Hormones and Immunity in Pregnancy170
4.4.1Progesterone170
4.4.1.1Progesterone Induced Blocking Factor (PIBF)173
4.4.2Estrogens174
4.5Immunomodulatory Proteins175
4.6Anti-Trophoblast Immunity Failure by Apoptosis and/or Anergy Induction176
4.6.1Extrathymic Lymphocyte Maturation (eTLM) and Selection179
4.6.2Failure of Blood-thymus Barrier180
4.7Evolutionary Solutions of Viviparity in Mammals181
References184
Chapter 5Tumors in Mammals and Non-mammalian Classes of Vertebrates195
5.1Comparative Oncology195
5.1.1Genetic Properties of Tumors in Vertebrates199
5.1.1.1Oncogenes201
5.1.2Phenomenon of Cell Socialization in Embryogenesis vs. Oncogenesis202
5.1.3Selection of Tumor Cells as Micro-evolutionary Process of Tumor Development204
5.1.4Factors Influencing Oncogenesis in Vertebrates207
5.1.4.1Age207
5.1.4.2Temperature208
5.1.4.3Gender208
5.1.4.4Chemical Carcinogens209
5.1.4.5Radiation210
5.1.4.6Viruses210
5.2Tumors in Non-Mammalian Classes of Vertebrates211
5.2.1Tumors in Cartilagofish212
5.2.2Tumors in Bonefish213
5.2.3Tumors in Amphibians216
5.2.4Tumors in Reptiles218
5.2.5Tumors in Birds221
5.2.6Some Important Conclusions223
5.3Anti-tumor Immunity as Auto-Immunity225
5.4Pregnancy as a "Successful" Tumor228
5.4.1Immunological Properties in Successful vs. Unsuccessful Pregnancy230
5.4.2Immunological Properties in Pregnancy and Tumor Microenvironment231
5.5Evolution of the Hypothesis232
5.5.1Origin of Anti-tumor Immunity Failure in Vertebrates235
References241
Index249

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