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At the time the largest city in the world, Victorian London intrigued and appalled politicians, clergymen, novelists and social investigators. Dickens, Mayhew, Booth, Gissing and George Bernard Shaw, to name but a few, developed a morbid fascination with its sullied streets and the sensational gulf between London classes. Outcast London explores the London economy, in particular its vast numbers of casual and irregular day labourers and the artisans and seamstresses engaged in seasonal and workshop trades.
This vast assemblage was volatile, subject to the ups and downs of the world economy, to the vagaries of the weather, and to the rise and fall of various trades. Its crises could cause panic in wealthy London. New forms of charity came into being as well as, eventually, an embryonic form of the twentieth century welfare state.
At first sight, the London described in this book is wholly remote from the city encountered today. But developments in recent decades reveal that the types of irregular employment, poverty and inequality experienced by modern Londoners are not so distant from those familiar to their Victorian and Edwardian ancestors.
|Publisher:||Penguin Young Readers Group|
|Product dimensions:||7.00(w) x 5.00(h) x 1.00(d)|
About the Author
Gareth Stedman Jones is a Fellow of King’s College, Cambridge University and in 2010 become Professor of the History of Ideas at Queen Mary, University of London. He is the author of An End to Poverty? and Languages of Class: Studies in Working-Class History 1832–1982.
Table of Contents
List of Plates vii
List of Tables, Maps, and Figures ix
Preface to the 2013 Edition xiii
Preface to the 1984 Edition xxvii
Part I The London Labour Market and the Casual Labour Problem
1 London as an Industrial Centre 19
2 Seasonality of Production 33
3 Casual Labour: Numbers and Occupations 52
4 The Structure of the Casual Labour Market 67
5 The Development of the Casual Labour Market in East London 99
6 Casual Labour and Rural Immigration: the Theory of Urban Degeneration 127
7 The Crisis of the Inner Industrial Perimeter 152
Part II Housing and the Casual Poor
8 The Transformation of Central London 159
9 The Search for a Palliative before 1875 179
10 Cleansing the Augean Stables 197
11 The Housing Crisis in the 1880s 215
Supplementary Tables for Part II 231
Part III Middle-Class London and the Problem of the Casual Poor
12 Prologue 239
13 The Deformation of the Gift: the Problem of the 1860s 241
14 The Economics of 'Demoralization.' 262
15 'Moralizing' the Casual Poor 271
16 From 'Demoralization' to 'Degeneration': the Threat of Outcast London 281
17 The Impact of the Dock Strike 315
18 Epilogue: The Casual Poor in the Age of Imperialism 322
19 Postscript: Socialism and the Casual Poor 337
Appendix 1 Notes on the Reclassification of the 1861 and 1891 Censuses into Social and Industrial Groupings 350
Appendix 2 Statistical Tables, Charts, and Figures 358
Select Bibliography 394