Oxalate Metabolism in Relation to Urinary Stone

Oxalate Metabolism in Relation to Urinary Stone

by G. Alan Rose (Editor)

Paperback(Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1988)

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781447116288
Publisher: Springer London
Publication date: 01/19/2012
Series: The Bloomsbury Series in Clinical Science
Edition description: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1988
Pages: 197
Product dimensions: 6.69(w) x 9.61(h) x 0.02(d)

Table of Contents

1 Introduction.- Plasma Oxalate/Creatinine Ratio.- Renal Hyperoxaluria?.- 2 Assay of Oxalate and Glycollate in Urine.- Relevant Chemistry of Oxalate and Glycollate Anions.- Assaying of Oxalate in Urine.- Methods for the Preliminary Separation of Oxalate from Other Urinary Constituents.- Analytical Approaches for Determining Urinary Oxalate.- Ascorbate — a Major Problem in the Assaying of Oxalate in Urine.- Normal Range for Urinary Oxalate.- Assaying for Urinary Glycollate.- Chemical Techniques.- Physical Techniques.- Enzymatic Techniques.- Usefulness of Urinary Glycollate in Determining the Origin of Hyperoxaluria.- Summary.- 3 Experiences with an External Quality Assessment Scheme for Urinary Oxalate.- Urinary Oxalate Assay — the Need for External Quahty Assessment.- Organisation of the Quality Assessment Scheme.- Details of Participants.- Preparation and Distribution of Material.- Results.- Selection of Data.- Between-Laboratory Imprecision.- Accuracy.- Ascorbate Interference and its Removal.- Other Observations on Selected Methods.- Discussion.- Conclusion.- 4 Assaying of Oxalate in Plasma.- Plasma-Oxalate Determination.- Separation of Oxalate from Plasma prior to its Measurement.- In vitro Assays for Plasma Oxalate.- In vivo Radioisotopic Assays.- Assaying of Plasma Oxalate at St Peter’s Hospitals (London).- Plasma Oxalate Levels in Normal and some Pathological States. Clinical Usefulness of Plasma Oxalate.- Normal Subjects.- Patients with Renal Failure with or without Primary Hyperoxaluria.- Circadian Variation of Plasma Oxalate. Implications for zxOxalate Clearance.- Conclusions and Summary.- 5 Primary Hyperoxaluria.- Clinical Aspects.- Biochemistry.- General.- The Metabolic Lesion in Type I Primary Hyperoxaluria.- The Metabohc Lesion in Type II Primary Hyperoxaluria.- Primary Hyperoxaluria Type III.- Investigation and Evaluation of Patients with Primary Hyperoxaluria.- Treatment.- 6 Primary Hyperoxaluria in Children.- Clinical Features.- Age and Sex.- Presentation.- Infantile Oxalosis.- Older Children.- Biochemical Features.- Urine Oxalate in Normal Children.- Hyperoxaluria.- Glycollate.- Diagnosis in Renal Failure.- Progress.- Renal Function.- Systemic Oxalosis.- Treatment.- Simple Measures.- Pyridoxine.- Surgery and Lithotripsy.- Dialysis and Transplantation.- The Future.- Antenatal Diagnosis.- Liver Transplantation.- 7 Enteric and Other Secondary Hyperoxalurias.- Oxalate Metabolism and Secondary Hyperoxaluria.- Pathogenesis of Enteric Hyperoxaluria.- Glyoxylate Theory.- Origin of Excess Urinary Oxalate.- Reasons for Hyperabsorption of Dietary Oxalate.- Clinical Importance of Enteric Hyperoxaluria.- Renal Complications.- Screening for Steatorrhoea with the Oxalate Loading Test.- Treatment of Enteric Hyperoxaluria.- Dietary Measures.- Drug Therapy.- Surgical Treatment.- Summary.- 8 Mild Metabolic Hyperoxaluria. A New Syndrome.- Historical.- Clinical Details of Patients.- Link with Other Conditions.- Response to Pyridoxine.- Aetiology.- Have Others Seen MMH?.- Effect of Pyridoxine on Stone Formation.- 9 Oxalate Crystalluria.- Crystal Types Seen by Light Microscopy at 37°C.- Calcium Oxalate.- Calcium Phosphate.- Investigating Crystalluria.- Inducing Crystallisation.- Generating Crystals by Evaporation.- Quantitative Crystal Measurements.- Determining Relative Amounts of Calcium Oxalate Crystals.- Absolute Quantities of Calcium Oxalate Crystals.- Chemical Analysis of Urinary Crystals.- Recent Studies of Crystalluria.- Crystal Sizes.- “Eroded” Envelope Oxalate Crystals.- The Importance of Urinary Oxalate in Calcium Oxalate Crystalluria.- Microscopy of Urinary Oxalate Crystals.- Aggregation of Envelope Oxalate Crystals.- Role of Urinary Calcium Concentration in Oxalate Crystalluria.- Urine Osmolality and Calcium Oxalate Crystalluria.- Osmolality and Calcium Phosphate Crystalluria.- pH Effects on Crystalluria.- Microscopy Findings.- Effect on Crystalluria of Urinary pH.- Inhibitors of Calcium Oxalate Crystallisation.- Summary.- 10 Renal Failure and Transplantation in Primary Hyperoxaluria.- Clinical Aspects.- Medical Care.- Surgical Care.- Systemic Oxalosis.- Peritoneal Dialysis and Haemodialysis.- Renal Transplantation.- Combined Hepatic and Renal Transplantation.- Conclusion.- 11 Vitamin B6 Metabolism in Relation to Metabolic Hyperoxaluria.- Structure and Function of Vitamin B6.- Vitamin B6 and Hyperoxaluria.- Methods for Studying Pyridoxine Metabolism.- Analytical Problems.- Present Methods Available.- A Simple HPLC Method for Studying Vitamin B6 Metabolism.- Apotryptophanase Assay.- Urinary Pyridoxic Acid Assay.- Evaluation of Plasma Vitamin B6 Methods.- Separation of Vitamin B6 Standards.- Calibration of HPLC System.- Chemical Recovery of B6 Vitamers from Plasma.- Precision of HPLC Assay for Vitamin B6.- Correlation between HPLC and Enzymatic Method for Plasma PLP.- Correlation between Two Methods for Pyridoxic Acid.- Physiology of Pyridoxine.- Diurnal Rhythm of Plasma PLP in Normal Subjects.- Effect of a Single Dose of 200 mg Pyridoxine.- Reference Plasma PLP Values.- Plasma B6 Profile from a Normal Subject.- Plasma B6 Profiles from Individuals on Pyridoxine Supplements.- Half-Life of Plasma Pyridoxine.- Effect of Dose of Pyridoxine on Plasma Levels of Vitamers.- Plasma Levels of Vitamin B6 in Metabolic Hyperoxalurias.- Urinary Excretion of Pyridoxic Acid after Load of Pyridoxine.

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