Oxygen/Nitrogen Radicals: Lung Injury and Disease

Oxygen/Nitrogen Radicals: Lung Injury and Disease

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Overview

Oxygen/Nitrogen Radicals: Lung Injury and Disease by Val Vallyathan

The first state-of-the-art book dealing specifically with lung injury induced by oxygen and nitrogen radicals, this detailed treatise discusses molecular, cellular, and mechanistic events leading to pathophysiological outcomes; the role of oxidant species in the induction of these events; and potential therapeutic avenues targeting such molecular pathways. Important issues regarding oxidative stress involvement in the initiation and progression of pulmonary diseases-including diseases caused by occupational and environmental inhalation of toxicants-are discussed in the context of amelioration by antioxidants.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780824748746
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Publication date: 04/01/2004
Series: Lung Biology in Health and Disease Series
Pages: 550
Product dimensions: 6.10(w) x 8.90(h) x 1.30(d)

Table of Contents

Introductioniii
Prefacev
Contributorsvii
1.Reactive Oxygen/Nitrogen Species: Generation and Reactions in the Lung1
I.Introduction1
II.Reactive Oxygen Species2
III.Reactive Nitrogen Species10
IV.Further Reactions of ROS and RNS with Biological Molecules17
V.Conclusions22
References23
2.Oxidative Stress/Antioxidant Status in Health and Disease35
I.Introduction35
II.Antioxidants in Normal Healthy Lung38
III.Antioxidants in Lung Diseases42
IV.Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Genes48
V.Pharmacological Modulation and Clinical Benefits50
VI.Conclusions51
References52
3.Reactive Oxygen Species in the Activation and Regulation of Intracellular Signaling Events59
I.Introduction59
II.Sources of ROS60
III.ROS and Signal Transduction66
IV.Is p53 Regulated by or a Regulator for ROS?74
V.ROS Regulation of Nuclear Factor of Activated T Cells76
VI.Summary77
References77
4.Mediators of Lung Inflammation: Role of Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species91
I.Introduction91
II.Immune Complex-Induced Injury as a Model for Oxidant-Mediated Lung Inflammation92
III.Superoxide and Oxygen Radicals93
IV.Nitric Oxide94
V.Proteases96
VI.Endogenous Mediators: Cytokines, Transcription Factors, Chemokines, and Adhesion Molecules96
VII.Role of C5a in Acute Lung Inflammation102
VIII.Clinical Relevance103
IX.Conclusions104
References106
5.Pulmonary Complications of Chronic Granulomatous Disease111
I.Introduction111
II.Molecular Basis of CGD and Defects in Oxidative Metabolism111
References116
6.Genotoxic and Carcinogenic Mechanisms of Mineral Fibers: Role of Reactive Oxygen Species121
I.Introduction121
II.Asbestos as a Gene and Chromosomal Mutagen122
III.Fiber-Cell Interaction in Mediating Genotoxic Response123
IV.Detection of Oxy Radicals Produced by Asbestos Fibers124
V.Effect of Depleted Intracellular Glutathione Level on Fiber Mutagenesis124
VI.Induction of Oxidative DNA Damage by Asbestos Fibers126
VII.Types of Mutations Induced by Asbestos Are Similar to Those of Hydrogen Peroxide126
VIII.Transformation Studies with Human Epithelial Cells127
IX.Gene Expression Profile in Asbestos-Induced Tumor Cells129
X.Ectopic Expression of the [beta]ig-h3 Gene Suppressive Tumorigenicity131
XI.Conclusion131
References133
7.Influence of Mineral Dust Surface Characteristics and Generation of Reactive Species139
I.Introduction139
II.Asbestos140
III.Phyllosilicates and Coal148
IV.Conclusions154
References157
8.Oxygen/Nitrogen Radicals and Silica-Induced Diseases161
I.Introduction161
II.Generation of Reactive Oxygen Species from Crystalline Silica163
III.Generation of Reactive Oxygen Species from Lung Cells Exposed to Silica167
IV.Nitric Oxide Production by Lung Cells171
V.Summary173
References173
9.Asbestosis and Asbestos-Related Cancers: Role of Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species179
I.Introduction179
II.Diseases Caused by Asbestos180
III.Generation of ROS/RNS by Asbestos182
IV.Role of ROS/RNS in Asbestos-Associated Cellular Effects183
V.Asbestos-Induced RNS Generation and Pulmonary Toxicity186
VI.Summary187
References189
10.Interactions of Exogenous or Evoked Reactive Oxygen Species and Inhaled Particles in the Lung197
I.Introduction197
II.Adhesion of Particles to Epithelial Cells197
III.Particle Uptake and Retention by Epithelial Cells199
IV.Exogenous or Evoked ROS and Pathological Reactions to Particles201
V.Conclusions205
References207
11.Smoking-Induced Inflammation, Injury, and Disease: Molecular Mechanisms211
I.Introduction211
II.Cigarette Smoke and Oxidative Stress212
III.ROS-Mediated Lipid Peroxidation Products and Their Role in Biochemical Processes214
IV.Involvement of Cigarette Smoke-Mediated Lipid Peroxidation Products in Cell Signaling and Gene Transcription218
V.Role of ROS and Cigarette Smoke-Induced Oxidative Stress in Chromatin Modeling: Role for Histone Acetylation/Deacetylation and DNA Methylation227
VI.Conclusions239
References239
12.Respiratory Health Effects of Ambient Air Pollution Particles: Role of Reactive Species257
I.Oxidative Stress in the Lungs257
II.PM[subscript 10] Measurement and Adverse Health Effects259
III.Inflammation and Oxidative Stress as Factors in the Adverse Effects of PM[subscript 10]260
IV.Oxidative Activity of PM261
V.Induction of Oxidative Stress-Responsive Signaling Pathways265
VI.Conclusions277
References278
13.Ozone-Induced Lung Injury: Role of Macrophages and Inflammatory Mediators289
I.Introduction289
II.Ozone-Induced Lung Injury and Inflammation290
III.Cell Adhesion Molecules and Ozone Toxicity291
IV.Inflammatory Mediators and Ozone Toxicity292
V.Mechanisms Regulating the Production of Inflammatory Mediators in the Lung Following Ozone Exposure300
VI.Conclusions302
References303
14.Oxidative Stress in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease317
I.Introduction317
II.Oxidants in Cigarette Smoke318
III.Cell-Derived Oxidants319
IV.Oxidative Stress and the Pathogenesis of COPD321
V.Local Oxidative Stress in the Lungs322
VI.Systemic Oxidative Stress326
VII.Surrogate Markers of Oxidative Stress in the Lungs329
VIII.Oxidative Stress and Susceptibility to COPD341
IX.Therapy to Target Oxidative Stress341
X.Future Perspectives344
References344
15.Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Mechanisms of Disease Development and Prevention Strategies with Antioxidants361
I.Introduction361
II.Prevalence362
III.Risk Factors362
IV.Pathogenesis374
V.Mechanisms of Disease Development375
VI.Prevention Strategies with Antioxidants377
VII.Conclusions380
References381
16.Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome and Oxidative Stress: Mechanisms of Disease Development and Opportunities for Antioxidant Prevention393
I.Introduction393
II.Pathology and Pathogenesis394
III.Important Factors in the Pathogenesis of ARDS398
IV.Antioxidant Therapy405
V.Conclusions406
References407
17.Asthma and Oxidative Stress413
I.Introduction413
II.Synthesis and Metabolism413
III.Effects on Airway Function416
IV.Role in Asthma421
V.Concluding Remarks427
References427
18.Cellular Responses of the Lungs to Hyperoxia445
I.Introduction445
II.Background446
III.Pulmonary Distribution of Oxygen447
IV.Stages in the Progression of Acute Oxygen Toxicity447
V.Responses to Sublethal Hyperoxia Exposure453
VI.Pulmonary Antioxidant Enzymes and Their Distribution454
VII.Role of Airways and Other Nonparenchymal Tissues in Hyperoxia460
VIII.Necrotic Versus Apoptotic Cell Death460
IX.Neonatal Hyperoxia462
X.Experimental Manipulations of Pulmonary Defenses Against Hyperoxia463
References467
19.Vanadium- and Chromium-Induced Cell Signal Transduction475
I.Introduction475
II.Vanadium475
III.Chromium483
IV.Conclusions487
References488
20.Molecular Mechanisms of Oxidant-Induced Pulmonary Carcinogenesis493
I.Introduction493
II.Sources of Oxidants and Oxidative Stress493
III.Mechanisms of Oxidant-Induced Carcinogenesis496
IV.Conclusions505
References507
Index513

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