Parkinson's disease, a common neurologic disorder of dopamine dysfunction, is characterized by motor, cognitive, psychiatric and autonomic symptoms. Parkinsonism has been defined as a complex syndrome with many etiologies, and it is most common in the elderly. Its cause is unknown and it is represented by idiopathic Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative conditions. Chapter one of this book discusses vascular Parkinsonism, which is a type of a Parkinsonism secondary to cerebrovascular disease. Chapter two presents a single blind randomized phase II study comparing surgical intervention with adjustable ventriculo-peritoneal shunt plus dopamine oral therapy versus surgical operation alone in patients affected by idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus associated with Parkinsonism. Chapter three reviews the current knowledge regarding the role of Mavridis' atrophy (the parkinsonism-related shrinkage of the human nucleus accumbens) in Parkinson's disease.