Pauper Ancestors: A Guide to the Records Created by the Poor laws in England and Wales

Pauper Ancestors: A Guide to the Records Created by the Poor laws in England and Wales

by David T. Hawkings


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Pauper Ancestors: A Guide to the Records Created by the Poor laws in England and Wales by David T. Hawkings

The first Poor Law was enacted in 1601, and this system of social security, which was supposed to ensure that those who could not work had food, drink, and a roof over their heads, but which is inextricably linked in the public imagination with the cruelty of the workhouse, was not finally abolished until the creation of the NHS in 1948. Being part of the government bureaucracy, detailed records were kept of everything: rate-payers, collectors of rates, workhouse overseers and staff, and the inmates of workhouses, as well poor people who were helped to move to the North of England to work in industry, those given assisted passage to Australia, and children sent to Canada. David T. Hawkings, one of Britain's leading genealogists, explains here for the first time how to use these records to trace your family history, providing an important, must-have resource for genealogists and family historians who want to make use of this comprehensive repository of information.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780752456652
Publisher: The History Press
Publication date: 03/01/2011
Pages: 512
Product dimensions: 7.10(w) x 9.90(h) x 1.50(d)

About the Author

David T. Hawkings has spent more than 40 years researching his own family history. He created the television series Find Your Family, worked on the BBC's Who Do You Think You Are?, is a Fellow of the Society of Genealogists, and was founder chairman of the West Middlesex Family History Society. He is the author of Railway Ancestors and Criminal Ancestors.

Table of Contents

Preface vii

Acknowledgements x

Abbreviations xii

Foreword xiii

Introduction xiv

Chapter 1 Four Champions of the Poor 1

Chapter 2 Parish Accounts 8

Chapter 3 Bastardy 17

Chapter 4 Settlement Examinations, Removal Orders and Settlement Certificates 27

Chapter 5 Pauper Apprentices 67

Chapter 6 Union Records 79

Chapter 7 Union Officials and Other Local Officers 104

Chapter 8 Union Staff 115

Chapter 9 Correspondence 149

Chapter 10 Ratepayers 202

Chapter 11 Workhouse Dietary 213

Chapter 12 Out Relief 220

Chapter 13 Sickness and Death 232

Chapter 14 Audit and Visit Reports 257

Chapter 15 Assisted Migration to the North of England 289

Chapter 16 Assisted Emigration 296

Chapter 17 Early State Education 327

Chapter 18 Vaccination Against Smallpox 354

Chapter 19 Pauper Lunatics 365

Chapter 20 Health and Safety in Workhouses and the Community 392

Chapter 21 Official Reports 418

Bibliography 444

Appendix 1 Acts of Parliament Relating to the Poor Law 449

Appendix 2 Lists of Poor Law Unions in England and Wales 455

Appendix 3 Registers of Admissions to Lunatic Asylums 475

Appendix 4 The Old Monetary System 477

Appendix 5 Websites for Record Offices in England and Wales 479

Index of Place Names and Ships 482

Index of Personal Names 488

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