Perception and Motor Control in Birds: An Ecological Approach

Perception and Motor Control in Birds: An Ecological Approach

Paperback(Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1994)

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9783642758713
Publisher: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Publication date: 12/14/2011
Edition description: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1994
Pages: 364
Product dimensions: 6.10(w) x 9.25(h) x 0.03(d)

Table of Contents

to Section I.- 1 Form and Function in the Optical Structure of Bird Eyes.- 1.1 Introduction.- 1.2 The Bases of Diversity in Avian Eye Structure.- 1.3 Quantitative Descriptions of Eye Structures and Their Properties.- 1.4 Interpretations of Diversity.- 1.4.1 Shape and Size of Eyes.- 1.4.2 The Optical Design of Eyes.- 1.5 The Role of the Iris.- 1.5.1 Pupil Size and Image Brightness.- 1.5.2 Pupil Size and Image Quality.- 1.5.3 Pupil Size and Depth of Field.- 1.6 Visual Fields.- 1.6.1 Monocular Fields.- 1.6.2 Binocular and Panoramic Fields.- 1.6.3 Visual Fields and Amphibious Habits.- 1.7 Concluding Remarks.- References.- 2 Functional Accommodation in Birds.- 2.1 The Power and Precision of Accommodation as a Distance Cue.- 2.2 A Technique to Measure Accommodation in Unrestrained, Alert Birds.- 2.3 Mechanisms of Accommodation in Terrestrial Birds.- 2.3.1 Speed of Accommodation.- 2.3.2 Coupled and Uncoupled Accommodation and the Convergence of Information.- 2.4 Visual Guidance of Pecking Behaviour.- 2.5 Lower Field Myopia: an Adaptation That “Keeps the Ground in Focus”?.- 2.6 The Role of Accommodation in Judging Distances.- References.- 3 Binocular Depth Perception.- 3.1 Introduction.- 3.2 What Exactly is Stereopsis?.- 3.2.1 Retinal Disparity and Stereopsis.- 3.2.2 Types of Stereopsis.- 3.3 Stereopsis in Birds.- 3.3.1 Neural Mechanisms for Local Stereopsis in Birds.- 3.3.2 Behavioural Tests of Stereopsis in Birds.- 3.4 Binocular Vision and the Oculomotor System in Birds.- 3.4.1 The Position of the Binocular Field.- 3.4.2 The Visual Trident in Birds.- 3.4.3 Binocular Fixation and Fusion.- 3.4.4 Vergence Eye Movements.- 3.4.5 Stereoscopic Limits Imposed Through the Oculomotor System.- 3.5 Role of Binocular Vision in the Guidance of Avian Behaviour.- 3.5.1 Guidance of the Peck Movement.- 3.5.2 Dependence of Behaviour on the Frame of Reference.- 3.6 Conclusions.- References.- 4 Sound Cues to Distance: The Perception of Range.- 4.1 Introduction.- 4.2 Why Range?.- 4.3 Ranging Cues.- 4.4 The Experimental Evidence for Ranging Ability.- 4.5 Mechanisms of Degradation Perception.- 4.6 Ranging and Honesty.- 4.7 Some Developments of Ranging Studies.- 4.7.1 Ranging as a Component of Other Signalling Behaviour.- 4.7.2 Resolution of Ranging.- 4.8 Conclusions.- References.- 5 Avian Orientation: Multiple Sensory Cues and the Advantage of Redundancy.- 5.1 Theoretical Considerations.- 5.2 Compass Mechanisms and Their Interrelation.- 5.2.1 The Magnetic Compass of Birds.- 5.2.2 The Interrelation Between Magnetic Compass and Sun Compass.- 5.2.3 Directional Orientation at Night.- 5.2.4 Integrating Directional Orientation.- 5.3 Mechanism for Determining the Home Direction.- 5.3.1 Navigation by Route-Specific Information.- 5.3.2 Site-Specific Information — the Navigational “Map”.- 5.3.3 Different Strategies Supplement Each Other.- 5.4 Determining the Migratory Direction.- 5.4.1 Reference Systems for the Migratory Direction.- 5.4.2 The Interrelation Between Celestial Rotation and the Magnetic Field During Ontogeny.- 5.5 Conclusion.- References.- to Section II.- 6 Neuroembryology of Motor Behaviour in Birds.- 6.1 Introduction.- 6.2 The Environment Within the Egg.- 6.3 Embryonic Motor Behaviours.- 6.3.1 Type I Embryonic Motility.- 6.3.2 Type II and Type III Embryonic Motility.- 6.4 Role of Sensory Information During Ongoing Embryonic Behaviours.- 6.4.1 What Sensory Information Is Available?.- 6.4.2 How Is Sensory Information Used?.- 6.5 Role of Sensory Input at Transitions in Behaviour.- 6.6 Role of Prior Sensory Input in Development of Later Behaviours.- 6.7 Conclusions.- References.- 7 Pre- and Postnatal Development of Wing-Flapping and Flight in Birds: Embryological, Comparative and Evolutionary Perspectives.- 7.1 Introduction.- 7.2 Prenatal Development of Spontaneous Wing-Flapping.- 7.3 Neural Basis of Embryonic Behaviour.- 7.4 Effect of Spontaneous Embryonic Behaviour on Muscle and Joint Development.- 7.5 Naturally Occurring Motor Neuron Death.- 7.6 Comparative Development of Wing-Flapping and Flight: Effects of Domestication.- 7.7 Experimental Studies of the Postnatal Development of Wing-Flapping and Flight.- 7.8 Bilateral Wing Coordination: Studies of Induced Bilateral Asymmetry.- 7.9 Development of Wing-Flapping and Flight in Dystrophic Chickens.- 7.10 Wing-Flapping in Flightless Birds: Evolutionary Insights.- 7.11 Centripetal Hypothesis of Neurobehavioural Evolution.- References.- 8 Development of Prehensile Feeding in Ring Doves (Streptopelia risoria): Learning Under Organismic and Task Constraints.- 8.1 Introduction.- 8.2 Thrusting and Grasping During Feeding in the Adult.- 8.3 Evidence for Plasticity and Skill in Adult Columbidae.- 8.4 The Transition from Dependent to Independent Feeding in the Ring Dove.- 8.5 Development of Pecking.- 8.5.1 Behavioural Analysis of the Development of Pecking.- 8.6 Behavioural Processes Underlying Development of Prehensile Feeding.- 8.7 The Viewpoint That Prehensile Feeding Is a Preorganized Response.- 8.8 Task Analysis.- 8.9 Summary.- References.- 9 Ingestive Behaviour and the Sensorimotor Control of the Jaw.- 9.1 Introduction.- 9.2 Ingestive Behaviour: Descriptive Analysis.- 9.3 Functional Considerations.- 9.4 Kinematic Analysis of Ingestive Jaw Movement Patterns.- 9.4.1 Kinematics of Drinking.- 9.4.2 Kinematics of Eating.- 9.5 Morphology and Myology of the Pigeon Jaw.- 9.6 Electromyographic Analysis of Ingestive Jaw Movements.- 9.6.1 Jaw Muscle Activity Patterns During Eating.- 9.6.2 Jaw Muscle Activity Patterns During Drinking.- 9.7 Response Topography and the Modulation of Jaw Movement Patterns.- 9.8 Conclusions.- References.- 10 Motor Organization of the Avian Head-Neck System.- 10.1 Introduction.- 10.2 Osteo-Muscular Design of the Avian Cervical Column.- 10.2.1 Osteology.- 10.2.2 Arthrology.- 10.2.3 Myology.- 10.3 Design Modifications of the Avian Cervical Column.- 10.3.1 Ligamentum Elasticum Cervicale.- 10.4 Patterning Head-Neck Movement and Motor Action.- 10.4.1 Postures: Minimal Flexion Model.- 10.4.2 Motion: Least Motion Model.- 10.4.3 Major Motion Principles.- 10.4.4 Motor Patterns.- 10.5 Control of Head-Neck Movements.- 10.5.1 Comparator Model of Head-Neck Control.- 10.5.2 Connections in the Central Nervous System.- 10.5.3 Network Control.- 10.6 Conclusions.- References.- to Section III.- 11 Course Control During Flight.- 11.1 Introduction: The Avian Flight Control System.- 11.2 Fundamentals of Avian Aeromechanics of Course Control.- 11.3 Head Stabilization and Head-Wing-Trunk Correlations During Slow Turning Flight.- 11.4 Head Deflection and Activity of Flight Control Muscles in the Flow-Stimulated Pigeon.- 11.5 Effects of Control Muscle Activity During Flight.- 11.6 Minimum Model of the Functional Organization of Course Control.- 11.7 The Extended Model: The Influence of Visceral and Vestibular Afferences on the Activity of Flight Control Muscles.- 11.8 Improvement of Head Stabilization by Airflow Stimuli.- References.- 12 The Analysis of Motion in the Visual Systems of Birds.- 12.1 Introduction.- 12.1.1 Local Motion, Figure-Ground Segregation and Camouflage.- 12.1.2 Trajectory and Spin.- 12.1.3 Self-Induced Motion.- 12.2 Object Motion in the Tectum and Tectofugal Pathway.- 12.2.1 Relative Motion.- 12.2.2 Figure-Ground Segregation Through Motion.- 12.2.3 Motion in Depth and Time to Collision.- 12.3 Visual Analysis of Self-Motion by the Accessory Optic System.- 12.3.1 Cardinal Directions of Optic Flow.- 12.3.2 Binocular Integration of Self-Induced Flow.- 12.4 Future Directions.- References.- 13 An Eye or Ear for Flying.- 13.1 Introduction.- 13.2 Flying by Eye.- 13.2.1 Stabilizing Vision.- 13.2.2 The Tau Function.- 13.2.3 Other Optical Specifications of ?(Z).- 13.2.4 More General Tau.- 13.2.5 Timing Interceptive Acts Under Acceleration.- 13.2.6 Action-Scaling Space.- 13.2.7 Theory of Control of Velocity of Approach.- 13.2.8 Experiments on Control of Velocity of Approach by Eye.- 13.3 Flying by Ear.- 13.3.1 Acoustic Taus.- 13.3.2 Experiments on Control of Velocity of Approach by Ear.- 13.4 Concluding Remarks.- References.- 14 Directional Hearing in Owls: Neurobiology, Behaviour and Evolution.- 14.1 Introduction.- 14.2 Bilateral Ear Asymmetry and Sound Localization in Owls.- 14.3 Neural Mechanisms for Sound Localization in Barn Owls.- 14.4 Comparative Physiology of Sound Localization Among the Owls.- 14.5 Evolution of Bilateral Ear Asymmetry.- 14.6 Future Directions.- References.- 15 Tuning of Visuomotor Coordination During Prey Capture in Water Birds.- 15.1 Introduction.- 15.2 Surface Plungers and Strikers.- 15.2.1 Light Reflection.- 15.2.2 Light Refraction.- 15.2.3 Surface Movement.- 15.2.4 Coping with Light Reflection and Surface Movement.- 15.3 Coping with Refraction: The Case of Herons and Egrets.- 15.3.1 Prey Capture by Little Egrets in the Field.- 15.3.2 Prey Capture by Reef Herons in Captivity.- 15.3.3 A Model for Coping with Light Refraction and Its Verification.- 15.3.4 Prey Capture in Cattle Egrets and Squacco Herons in Captivity.- 15.4 Visually Guided Prey Capture in Pied Kingfishers.- 15.4.1 Estimation of Prey Depth.- 15.4.2 Effect of Prey Movement on Capture Success.- 15.5 Concluding Remarks.- References.- 16 Multiple Sources of Depth Information: An Ecological Approach.- 16.1 Depth Perception and the Control of Behaviour.- 16.2 Models of Visual Depth Perception.- 16.2.1 The Hierarchical Model.- 16.2.2 The Heterarchical Model.- 16.2.3 The Integration of Multiple Depth Cues.- 16.3 Conclusions.- References.

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