Perspectives in Ethology: Mechanisms available in Hardcover
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- Basic Books
When we began this series we wanted to encourage imaginative thinking among ethologists and those working in related fields. By the time we had reached Volume 3, we were advised by our publishers to give each volume a theme. Although we accepted the advice, it ran somewhat counter to our own wish to give our authors full rein. It also meant that we could not accept submitted manuscripts if they lay too far outside the topic for the next volume. We did, however, cheat a little, and faithful followers of the series will have noticed that some of the contributions were not exactly on the stated theme. Anyway, our publishers have now agreed that we can make honest people of ourselves by once again ac cepting a broad range of manuscripts for any volume. We shall also solicit manuscripts on particular topics that seem to be timely and appropriate, and each volume will continue to have a subtitle that relates to the theme of the majority of the papers in the volume. We hope that with our more permissive policy now explicit, potential contributors will feel encouraged to submit manuscripts to either of us at the addresses given at the end of this Preface. When planning the present volume, we wanted our contributors to build bridges between studies of behavior and the neurosciences. In recent years, the majority of people working on behavior seem to have been exclusively concerned with functional and evolutionary approaches.
Table of Contents1 The Science of Sentiment: The Problem of the Cerebral Localization of Emotion.- I. Abstract.- II. Introduction.- III. The Limbic System.- IV. The Origins of the Limbic System.- V. The Uses of Localization and Hierarchy.- A. Philosophy.- B. Methodology.- C. Theory.- D. Ideology.- VI. Conclusion.- VII. References.- 2 On Central Controls for Aggression.- I. Abstract.- II. Introduction and Discussion.- III. Acknowledgments.- IV. References.- 3 The Instrumental Effects of Emotional Behavior.- I. Abstract.- II. Activation.- III. Expectancy.- IV. Activation as a Self-Regulating Process.- V. Terms Based on the Expectancy Concept.- A. Coping.- B. Helplessness and Hopelessness.- C. Coping and Defense.- VI. Instrumental Effects of Emotional Responses.- VII. Behavioral Classifications of Threat-Induced Behavior Based on Instrumental Effects.- A. Defense (Strict Sense).- B. Offense.- C. Freezing.- D. Flight.- VIII. Conclusion.- IX. References.- 4 Behavioral Foundations of Adaptation.- I. Abstract.- II. Introduction.- III. Decisions and the Concept of Behavior Programs.- A. Behavior Programs.- B. Complex Behavior Patterns in Animals.- C. The Hierarchical Organization of Action.- IV. Distributed Process Control.- A. Distributed Control of Computing Machines.- B. Distributed Control of Biological Decision-Making.- C. The Degrees-of-Freedom Problem.- V. Adaptation in Distributed Decision-Making Systems.- A. Adaptation to the Status Quo.- B. Adaptation to Changes in the Status Quo.- VI. Concluding Remarks.- VII. Acknowledgments.- VIII. References.- 5 Brain and Behavior: Hierarchy of Feedback Systems and Control of Input.- I. Abstract.- II. Introduction.- III. Powers’ Concept: A Global View on the Cerebral Organization of Behavior.- A. Delineation of Basic Terminology: Key Points of Powers’ Concept.- B. Cerebral Organization of Input Signals.- C. Cerebral Organization of Reference Signals.- D. Cerebral Organization of Output Signals.- IV. Behavioral Consequences of Changes in the Cerebral Organization.- A. Initiation, Maintenance, and Termination of Behavioral Programs.- B. Repetition of a Particular Behavioral Program.- C. Abrupt Interruption of Behavioral Programs.- V. Delineation of Rules of Order in the Cerebral Organization of Behavior.- VI. Delineation of Brain Processes Directing Rules of Order in the Cerebral Organization of Behavior.- A. How to Specify the Hierarchical Level of a Brain Entity: An Illustration.- B. How to Specify Signals Carried by a Brain Entity: An Illustration.- C. Neostriatum: System for Programming Arbitrarily the Ordering and Sequencing of Behavioral States.- D. Behavioral Consequences of Increasing the Magnitude of Reference Signals of the Striatal System: Apomorphine.- VII. How to Specify the Transformation of Behavioral Program Signals: Illustration of a Single Step Downstream in the Hierarchy.- A. Substantia Nigra, Pars Reticulata: Picrotoxin-Induced Effects.- B. Substantia Nigra, Pars Reticulata: Muscimol-Induced Effects.- VIII. How to Specify the Transformation of Behavioral Program Signals: Illustration of a Second Step Downstream in the Hierarchy.- A. Colliculus Superior, Deeper Layers: Muscimol-Induced Effects.- B. Colliculus Superior, Deeper Layers: Picrotoxin-Induced Effects.- IX. Transformation of Behavioral Program Signals into Behavioral Commands.- A. Dysfunctioning Striatal Programming Signals and Limited Degree of Behavioral Deficits.- B. Transformation of Striatal Program Signals into Behavioral Commands.- X. Epilogue.- XI. Postscript and Acknowledgments.- XII. References.- 6 Environmental Influences on Early Development: A Comparison of Imprinting and Cortical Plasticity.- I. Abstract.- II. Introduction.- III. Introduction to Paradigms.- A. Characteristics of Imprinting.- B. Plasticity of the Visual Cortex of the Cat.- IV. Comparison of the Two Paradigms.- A. The Time Course of Sensitive Periods.- B. Irreversible Storage of Information.- C. Canalization of the Acquisition of External Stimuli by Genetic Influences.- D. Hebb’s Postulate on Learning as a Description of Plasticity Phenomena and the Influence of Selective Attention, Motivation, and Arousal.- V. Some Experiments Concerning the Morphological and Biochemical Correlates of Imprinting and Cortical Plasticity.- A. Cortical Plasticity.- B. Imprinting.- VI. Imprinting and Cortical Plasticity: Two Expressions of a Common Developmental Process?.- A. Specification of Neural and Behavioral Reactions.- B. The Temporal Course of Sensitive Periods.- C. Learning in Adult Animals.- D. Significance of Sensitive Periods and Imprinting for Adult Behavior.- VII. Conclusions.- VIII. Acknowledgments.- IX. References.- 7 The Temporal Structure of Memory Formation.- I. Abstract.- II. Introduction.- III. Bead Pecking Tasks Used in the Chick.- IV. A Comparison of Memory Formation in Mammals and in Chick.- V. Temporary Amnesias and Separate Routes of Memory Formation.- VI. The Route to Long-Term Memory: Events at the + 25-min Transition.- VII. Retrieval Mechanisms and Memory Formation.- VIII. Modes of Analysis of Information.- IX. Problems for the Future.- A. Establishment of Route to LTM.- B. The Division of ITM at +25 Min.- C. Shift of Retrieval to LTM.- X. References.- 8 Mrs. Harvey’s Parrot and Some Problems of Socioendocrine Response.- I. Abstract.- II. Introduction.- III. Socially Induced Ovulation: Early Studies.- IV. Recent Approaches.- V. The Female as Active Participant in Her Ovulatory Response.- A. Selection and Retention of the Male Mate.- B. Female Induction of Coordinated Responses from the Male.- C. Self-Feedback from Female Courtship Behavior.- VI. Implications of the Self-Feedback Hypothesis.- A. Why Males Attack Sexually Aroused Females.- B. Mrs. Harvey’s Parrot and the Mystery of the Misfired Egg.- VII. Summary and Conclusions.- VIII. Acknowledgment.- IX. References.- 9 Temporally Patterned Chemical communication: Is it Feasible?.- I. Abstract.- II. Introduction.- III. Sex Attraction and Courtship.- IV. Production of Temporally Patterned Chemical Signals.- V. The Transmission Medium.- A. Mathematical Models.- B. Empirical Measurements.- VI. Properties of the Receiver.- VII. Acknowledgments.- VIII. References.