ISBN-10:
0195328469
ISBN-13:
9780195328462
Pub. Date:
03/28/2008
Publisher:
Oxford University Press, USA
Philosophical Conversations: A Concise Historical Introduction / Edition 1

Philosophical Conversations: A Concise Historical Introduction / Edition 1

by Norman Melchert

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780195328462
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
Publication date: 03/28/2008
Edition description: New Edition
Pages: 624
Sales rank: 272,328
Product dimensions: 9.10(w) x 7.40(h) x 1.20(d)

Table of Contents

A Word to Instructors
A Word to Students
Acknowledgments
1. BEFORE PHILOSOPHY: Myth in Hesiod and Homer
Hesiod: War among the Gods
Homer: Heroes, Gods, and Excellence
2. PHILOSOPHY BEFORE SOCRATES
Thales: The One as Water
Anaximander: The One as the Boundless
Xenophanes: The Gods as Fictions
Sketch: Pythagoras
Heraclitus: Oneness in the Logos
Profile: The Tao
Parmenides: Only the One
Zeno: The Paradoxes of Common Sense
Atomism: The One and the Many Reconciled
The Key: An Ambiguity
The World
The Soul
How to Live
3. SOCRATES AND THE SOPHISTS: Rhetoric, Relativism, and the Search for Truth
The Sophists
Rhetoric
Relativism
Physis and Nomos
Athens and Sparta at War
Socrates
Character
Is Socrates a Sophist?
What Socrates "Knows"
4. THE TRIAL AND DEATH OF SOCRATES
Euthyphro
Apology
Translator's Introduction
The Dialogue
Commentary and Questions
Crito's Visit
Socrates' Death
5. PLATO: Knowing the Real and the Good
Knowledge and Opinion
Making the Distinction
We Do Know Certain Truths
The Objects of Knowledge
The Reality of the Forms
The World and the Forms
How Forms are Related to the World
Lower and Higher Forms
The Form of the Good
The Love of Wisdom
The Soul
The Immortality of the Soul
The Structure of the Soul
Morality
The State
Problems with the Forms
6. ARISTOTLE: The Reality of the World
Aristotle and Plato
Otherworldliness
The Objects of Knowledge
Human Nature
Relativism and Skepticism
Ethics
Logic and Knowledge
Terms and Statements
Truth
Reasons Why: The Syllogism
Knowing First Principles
The World
Nature
The Four "Becauses"
Is There Purpose in Nature?
Teleology
First Philosophy
Substance and Form
Pure Actualities
God
The Soul
Levels of Soul
Soul and Body
Nous
The Good Life
Happiness
Virtue or Excellence (Arete)
The Role of Reason
Responsibility
The Highest Good
INTERLUDE 1: The Skeptics
INTERLUDE 2: The Christians
Background
Jesus
The Meaning of Jesus
7. AUGUSTINE: God and the Soul
Wisdom, Happiness, and God
God and the World
The Great Chain of Being
Evil
Time
Human Nature and Its Corruption
Human Nature and Its Restoration
The Two Cities
Christians and Philosophers
Reason and Authority
Intellect and Will
8. ANSELM AND AQUINAS: Arguing for the Existence of God
Anselm: On That, Than Which No Greater Can Be Conceived
Thomas Aquinas: Rethinking Aristotle
Sketch: Avicenna (Ibn Sin=a)
Philosophy and Theology
Existence and Essence
Sketch: Averroës (Ibn Rushd)
From Creation to God
Sketch: Maimonides (Moses ben Maimon)
INTERLUDE 3: Moving from Medieval to Modern
The World God Made for Us
The Humanists
Reforming the Church
Skeptical Thoughts Revived
Copernicus to Kepler to Galileo: The Great Triple Play
9. RENÉ DESCARTES: Doubting our Way to Certainty
The Method
Meditations: Commentary and Questions
Meditation I
Meditation II
Meditation III
Meditations IV through VI
What Has Descartes Done?
A New Ideal for Knowledge
A New Vision of Reality
Problems
The Preeminence of Epistemology
10. JOHN LOCKE: The Beginnings of Empiricism
Origin of Ideas
Sketch: Francis Bacon
Idea of Substance
Sketch: George Berkeley
Profile: Thomas Hobbes
Idea of The Soul
Idea of Personal Identity
Language and Essence
The Extent of Knowledge
Of Representative Government
Of Toleration
11. DAVID HUME: Unmasking the Pretensions of Reason
How Newton Did It
To Be the Newton of Human Nature
The Theory of Ideas
The Association of Ideas
Causation: The Very Idea
The Disappearing Self
Sketch: The Buddha
Rescuing Human Freedom
Is It Reasonable to Believe in God?
Understanding Morality
Reason Is Not a Motivator
The Origins of Moral Judgment
Is Hume a Skeptic?
12. IMMANUEL KANT: Rehabilitating Reason (within Strict Limits)
Critique
Judgments
Geometry, Mathematics, Space, and Time
Common Sense, Science, and the A Priori Categories
Sketch: Baruch Spinoza
Phenomena and Noumena
Sketch: Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz
Reasoning and the Ideas of Metaphysics: God, World, and Soul
The Soul
The World and the Free Will
God
The Ontological Argument
Reason and Morality
The Good Will
The Moral Law
Sketch: Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Autonomy
Freedom
13. HEGEL AND MARX: History and Revolution
Hegel: Spirit, History, and Freedom
Phenomenology
Sketch: Arthur Schopenhauer
Reason and Reality: The Theory of Idealism
History and Freedom
Marx: Beyond Alienation and Exploitation
Alienation, Exploitation, and Private Property
Communism
14. KIERKEGAARD AND NIETZSCHE: Christian and Anti-Christian
Kierkegaard: On Individual Existence
The Aesthetic
The Ethical
The Religious
The Individual
Nietzsche: The Value of Existence
Overcoming Pessimism
Good-bye Real World
The Death of God
Revaluation of Values
Profile: Iris Murdoch
The Overman
Affirming Eternal Recurrence
15. THE UTILITARIANS: Moral Rules and the Happiness of All (Including Women)
The Classic Utilitarians
The Rights of Women
16. THE PRAGMATISTS: Thought and Action
Charles Sanders Peirce
Fixing Belief
Belief and Doubt
Truth and Reality
Meaning
Signs
John Dewey
Naturalized Epistemology
Sketch: William James
Nature and Natural Science
Value Naturalized
17. LUDWIG WITTGENSTEIN: Linguistic Analysis and Ordinary Language
Language and Its Logic
Sketch: Bertrand Russell
Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus
Picturing
Thought and Language
Logical Truth
Saying and Showing
Setting the Limit to Thought
Value and the Self
Good and Evil, Happiness and Unhappiness
The Unsayable
Profile: The Logical Positivists
Philosophical Investigations
Philosophical Illusion
Language-Games
Naming and Meaning
Family Resemblances
The Continuity of Wittgenstein's Thought
Profile: Zen
Our Groundless Certainty
18. THE EXISTENTIALISTS: Heidegger, Sartre, de Beauvoir
Martin Heidegger: The Meaning of Being
What Is the Question?
The Clue
Phenomenology
Being-in-the-World
The "Who" of Dasein
Modes of Disclosure
Falling-Away
Care
Death
Conscience, Guilt, and Resoluteness
Temporality as the Meaning of Care
Simone de Beauvoir: The Priority of Freedom
Profile: Jean-Paul Sartre
Ambiguity
Ethics
Woman
19. POSTMODERNISM AND PHYSICAL REALISM: Derrida, Rorty, Quine, and Dennett
Postmodernism
Deconstruction: Jacques Derrida
Profile: Richard Rorty
Physical Realism
Science, Common Sense, and Metaphysics: Willard van Orman Quine
The Matter of Minds: Daniel Dennett
Afterword
Glossary
Credits
Index

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