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Oxford University Press, USA
Philosophical Dilemmas: A Pro and Con Introduction to the Major Questions / Edition 2

Philosophical Dilemmas: A Pro and Con Introduction to the Major Questions / Edition 2

by Phil Washburn


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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780195134964
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
Publication date: 12/28/2000
Edition description: Older Edition
Pages: 464
Product dimensions: 9.10(w) x 6.10(h) x 1.00(d)

About the Author

New York University

Table of Contents

Preface to the Third Edition     xvi
Preface     xvii
Historical Parallels     xx
Introduction     1
God, Immortality, and Faith     15
Does God Exist?     16
Yes: Causal Theist. "In the Beginning"     16
Critical Questions     18
Yes: Design Theist. "Design or Chance?"     19
Critical Questions     22
No: Atheist. "The Retreat of the Gods"     22
Critical Questions     25
Methods and Techniques: Arguments     25
Understanding the Dilemma     26
Is God Like Human Beings?     29
No: Abstractionist. "God Is Love"     30
Critical Questions     34
Yes: Personalist. "The Projection Theory"     34
Critical Questions     37
Methods and Techniques: Meanings of Words     38
Understanding the Dilemma     39
Can God Allow Innocent Suffering?     41
No: Contradictor. "There Is No God"     42
Critical Questions     45
Yes: Reconciler. "Character and Contentment"     45
Critical Questions     48
Methods and Techniques: Consistent Beliefs     48
Understanding the Dilemma     49
Is the Soul Immortal?     52
No: Mortalist. "Immortality"     53
Critical Questions     55
Yes: Survivor. "For and Against an Afterlife"     55
Critical Questions     58
Methods and Techniques: Facts and Concepts     58
Understanding the Dilemma     60
Is Faith an Answer?     62
Yes: Believer. "Accepting Limits"     63
Critical Questions     67
No: Questioner. "Faith and Its Consequences"     67
Critical Questions     70
Methods and Techniques: Consequences     71
Understanding the Dilemma     73
Is Believing in God Necessary for a Meaningful Life?     75
Yes: Meaning Theist. "The Meaning of Life Is the Submission to God"     76
Critical Questions     80
No: Existentialist. "The Myth of Ultimate Meaning"     81
Critical Questions     85
Methods and Techniques: Objectivity     85
Understanding the Dilemma     88
Current Controversy
Is Buddhism Philosophy?     92
Yes: Buddhist. "The Philosophy of Buddhism"     93
Critical Questions      97
No: Specialist. "The Difference Between Religion and Philosophy"     97
Critical Questions     101
Methods and Techniques: Definitions     101
Understanding the Dilemma     103
Connections: Transcendentalist or Naturalist?     107
Liberty, Equality, and Justice     113
Is Society Based on a Contract?     114
Yes: Contractor. "The Social Contract"     115
Critical Questions     117
No: Organicist. "The Social Organism"     117
Critical Questions     121
Methods and Techniques: Models     121
Understanding the Dilemma     124
Is Liberty the Highest Social Value?     127
Yes: Libertarian. "Liberty, the Supreme Social Value"     128
Critical Questions     132
No: Paternalist. "Empty Phrases"     133
Critical Questions     136
Methods and Techniques: Goals     136
Understanding the Dilemma     137
Is Equality the Highest Social Value?     141
Yes: Egalitarian. "Society and Property"     141
Critical Questions     145
No: Elitist. "What Elitists Believe"     145
Critical Questions     149
Methods and Techniques: Means and Ends     149
Understanding the Dilemma     150
Is Capitalism Just?     153
Yes: Capitalist. "Capitalism, Democracy, and Justice"     154
Critical Questions     158
No: Socialist. "Capitalist Society"     158
Critical Questions     162
Methods and Techniques: Thinking and Emotion     163
Understanding the Dilemma     164
Should we Establish a World Government?     168
Yes: Internationalist. "Choosing a Peaceful Future"     169
Critical Questions     173
No: Localist. "The Politics of World Government"     173
Critical Questions     177
Methods and Techniques: Comparing     177
Understanding the Dilemma     179
Current Controversy
Is Race Essential to Identity?     182
Yes: Essentialist. "The Meaning of Being Black"     183
Critical Questions     187
No: Nonessentialist. "Race and Identity"     187
Critical Questions     192
Methods and Techniques: Identity     193
Understanding the Dilemma     194
Connections: Individualist or Relationist?     198
Happiness, Obligations, and Values     205
Is Pleasure the Only Value?     206
Yes: Hedonist. "Hedonism"     207
Critical Questions     209
No: Pluralist. "A World of Values"     210
Critical Questions     215
Methods and Techniques: Facts and Values     215
Understanding the Dilemma     217
Can We Understand Happiness?     221
Yes: Definer. "Happiness"     222
Critical Questions     224
No: Skeptic. "The Elusive Dream"     225
Critical Questions     227
Methods and Techniques: Essential Properties     227
Understanding the Dilemma     229
Is Morality Relative?     231
Yes: Relativist. "Moral Relativism"     232
Critical Questions     236
No: Absolutist. "Right for You, Wrong for Me?"     236
Critical Questions     240
Methods and Techniques: Ad Hominem     240
Understanding the Dilemma     242
Is Happiness the Standard of Morality?     244
Yes: Utilitarian. "Utilitarianism"     245
Critical Questions     250
No: Formalist. "The Principle of Morality"     251
Critical Questions     255
Methods and Techniques: Moral Theories     256
Understanding the Dilemma     257
Is Society the Source of Values?     260
Yes: Functionalist. "An Objective Basis for Morality"     261
Critical Questions     263
No: Moral Theist. "The Current Crisis and Its Solution"     263
Critical Questions     266
Methods and Techniques: Necessary Conditions     266
Understanding the Dilemma     267
Current Controversy
Should Doctors Ever End People's Lives?     270
No: Protector. "Having Reasons for Moral Decisions"     271
Critical Questions     276
Yes: Euthanizer. "The Complex Issue of Euthanasia"     276
Critical Questions     280
Methods and Techniques: Justification     281
Understanding the Dilemma     283
Connections: Humanist or Objectivist?     287
Free Will, Mind, and Human Nature     293
Are We Free?     294
No: Hard Determinist. "One World, Not Two"     294
Critical Questions     297
Yes: Metaphysical Libertarian. "Free Will and Common Sense"      297
Critical Questions     299
Yes: Soft Determinist. "Verbal Disputes, Facts, and Free Will"     300
Critical Questions     303
Methods and Techniques: Introspection     303
Understanding the Dilemma     305
Are We Responsible for Our Actions?     308
No: Excuser. "Rejecting Responsibility"     309
Critical Questions     311
Yes: Judge. "No Excuse"     312
Critical Questions     315
Methods and Techniques: Infinite Regress     315
Understanding the Dilemma     317
Is the Mind Nothing But the Brain?     320
Yes: Materialist. "Body and Soul"     321
Critical Questions     323
No: Dualist. "The Inner Life"     324
Critical Questions     326
Methods and Techniques: Possible and Impossible     327
Understanding the Dilemma     328
Can Computers Think?     331
Yes: Mechanist. "Can Computers Think?"     332
Critical Questions     335
No: Mentalist. "People vs. Machines"     336
Critical Questions     339
Methods and Techniques: Analogies      339
Understanding the Dilemma     340
Are We Always Selfish?     343
Yes: Psychological Egoist. "No Free Lunch"     344
Critical Questions     346
No: Psychological Altruist. "Is Love Selfish?"     347
Critical Questions     349
Methods and Techniques: Generalizations     349
Understanding the Dilemma     351
Does Personal Identity Depend on Memory?     354
Yes: Lockean. "The Binding Thread of Memory"     355
Critical Questions     359
No: Sartrean. "The Essential Self"     359
Critical Questions     364
Methods and Techniques: False Dilemma     365
Understanding the Dilemma     368
Current Controversy
Are the Differences Between Men and Women Philosophically Significant?     372
No: Unifier. "Men, Women, and People"     373
Critical Questions     377
Yes: Complementer. "Who's Afraid of Difference?"     377
Critical Questions     382
Methods and Techniques: Classification     383
Understanding the Dilemma     385
Connections: Reductionist or Spiritualist?     389
Knowledge, Science, and Truth      397
Can We Know About the External World?     398
No: Internalist. "Knowledge of the External World"     399
Critical Questions     401
Yes: Perceiver. "The Limits of Ignorance"     402
Critical Questions     405
Methods and Techniques: Philosophy and Imagination     405
Understanding the Dilemma     406
Does Science Give Us Real Knowledge?     409
Yes: Positivist. "Science as Knowledge"     410
Critical Questions     413
No: Romantic. "What Kind of Understanding?"     414
Critical Questions     416
Methods and Techniques: Making Assumptions     416
Understanding the Dilemma     418
Is Experience the Source of All Knowledge?     421
Yes: Empiricist. "The Source of Knowledge"     422
Critical Questions     425
No: Rationalist. "The Strange Case of the Mathematician"     426
Critical Questions     429
Methods and Techniques: Analysis     430
Understanding the Dilemma     431
Is Certainty the Standard of Knowledge?     434
Yes: Foundationalist. "Certainty"     435
Critical Questions     440
No: Pragmatist. "The Test of Knowledge"     440
Critical Questions     444
Methods and Techniques: Observation     444
Understanding the Dilemma     446
Current Controversy
Does Truth Exist?     449
Yes: Representationalist. "True Beliefs and False Beliefs"     451
Critical Questions     454
No: Postmodernist. "Ten Theses on Language"     454
Critical Questions     458
Methods and Techniques: Proving a Negative     458
Understanding the Dilemma     459
Connections: Intuitionist or Externalist?     463
How to Write an Essay     469
Glossary of Contrasting Positions     485
Index     491

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