This very popular, comprehensive and user-friendly anthology offers an excellent selection of classic and contemporary readings on 19 key problems of philosophy set in a pro/con format. Focusing on classic readings, the text is designed to be accessible and helpful to the average undergraduate. Substantial introductions, individual introductions, biographical sketches, pre-reading Study Questions, and post-reading Reflective Questions provide just the right amount of support. The result is a proven, successful format for teaching introductory philosophy.
Table of ContentsPreface. PART 1: WHAT IS PHILOSOPHY? Introduction. Plato: Socratic Wisdom. Bertrand Russell: The Value of Philosophy. Excursus, A Little Bit of Logic. Suggestions for Further Reading. PART 2: PHILOSOPHY OF RELIGION. Introduction. Is Belief in God Rationally Justified? Arguments for the Existence of God. Thomas Aquinas: The Five Ways. Paul Edwards: A Critique of the Cosmological Argument. William Paley: The Watch and the Watchmaker. David Hume: A Critique of the Teleological Argument. St. Anselm and Gaunilo: The Ontological Argument. Why Is There Evil? Fyodor Dostoevski: Why Is There Evil? B.C. Johnson: God and the Problem of Evil. John Hick: There Is a Reason Why God Allows Evil. Is Faith Compatible with Reason? Blaise Pascal: Yes, Faith Is a Logical Bet. W.K. Clifford: The Ethics of Belief. William James: The Will to Believe. Anthony Flew, R. M. Hare, and Basil Mitchell: A Debate on the Rationality of Religious Belief. Alvin Plantinga: Religious Belief Without Evidence. Suggestions for Further Reading. PART 3: EPISTEMOLOGY: KNOWLEDGE. Introduction. What Can We Know? Classical Theories of Knowledge. Rene Descartes: Cartesian Doubt and the Search for Foundational Knowledge. John Locke: The Empiricist Theory of Knowledge. George Berkeley: An Idealist Theory of Knowledge. David Hume: The Origin of Our Ideas and Skepticism about Causal Reasoning. Skepticism: Can We Know Anything? Keith Lehrer: Why Not Skepticism? John Hospers: Argument Against Skepticism. What is Truth? Truth, Rationality and Cognitive Relativism. Bertrand Russell: The Correspondence Theory of Truth. William James:The Pragmatic Theory of Truth. Richard Rorty: Dismantling Truth: Solidarity versus Objectivity. Margarita Rosa Garcia Levin: Upholding Truth: Solidarity versus Objectivity. Suggestions for Further Reading. PART 4: PHILOSOPHY OF MIND: THE MIND-BODY PROBLEM. Introduction. What Am I? Am I a Mind or a Body? Rene Descartes: Dualistic Interactionism. Gilbert Ryle: Exorcising Descartes' Ghost in the Machine. J. P. Moreland: A Contemporary Defense of Dualism. Thomas Nagel: What Is It Like to Be a Bat? John Searle: Minds, Brains, and Computers. Who Am I? Do We Have a Personal Identity? John Locke: Our Psychological Properties Define the Self. David Hume: We Have No Substantial Self with Which We Are Identical. Derek Parfit and Godfrey Vesey: Brain Transplants and Personal Identity: A Dialogue. Is there Life after Death? Am I Immortal? Plato: Arguments for the Immortality of the Soul. Paul Edwards: An Argument Against Survival: The Dependence of Consciousness on the Brain. John Hick: In Defense of Immortality. PART 5: FREEDOM OF THE WILL AND DETERMINISM. Do We Have Free Will? Baron D'Holbach: We Are Completely Determined.. William James: The Dilemma of Determinism. Walter T. Stace: Compatibilism. John Hospers: A Psychoanalytic Defense of Hard Determinism. Richard Taylor: A Contemporary Defense of Free Will. Suggestions for Further Reading. PART 6: ETHICS. What is Ethics? Ruth Benedict: Morality Is Relative. James Rachels: Morality Is Not Relative. Ethics and Egoism: Why Should I Be Moral? Plato: Why Should I Be Moral? Gyges' Ring and Socrates' Dilemma. Ayn Rand: In Defense of Ethical Egoism. James Rachels: A Critique of Ethical Egoism. Which Is the Correct Ethical Theory? Aristotle: The Ethics of Virtue. Immanuel Kant: The Moral Law. John Stuart Mill: Utilitarianism. William Frankena: A Reconciliation of Two Systems of Ethics. Jean-Paul Sartre: Existentialist Ethics. Friedrich Nietzsche: The Ethics of Nobility. PART 7: POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY. Introduction. Why Should I Obey the Government? What is the Justification of Political Authority? Thomas Hobbes: The Absolutist Answer. John Locke: The Democratic Answer. John Stuart Mill: A Classical Liberal Answer: The Government Must Promote Freedom. John Hospers: The Libertarian Answer. Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels: The Communist Answer. John Rawls: The Contemporary Liberal Answer. PART 8: WHAT IS THE MEANING OF LIFE? Epicurus: Moderate Hedonism. Epictetus: Stoicism: Enchiridion. Albert Camus: Life Is Absurd. Lois Hope Walker: Religion Gives Meaning to Life. Walter T. Stace: There Is Meaning in Absurdity. Bertrand Russell: Reflections on Suffering. Suggestions for Further Reading. PART 9: PHILOSOPHY IN ACTION. Is Abortion Morally Permissible? John T. Noonan, Jr.: Abortion Is Not Morally Permissible. Mary Anne Warren: Abortion Is Morally Permissible. Jane English: The Moderate Position: Beyond the Personhood Argument. Is the Death Penalty Morally Permissable? Louis P. Pojman: Yes, the Death Penalty Is Morally Permissible. Hugo Adam Bedau: No, the Death Penalty Is Not Morally Permissible. Do Animals Have Rights? Peter Singer: The Case for Animal Liberation. Carl Cohen: The Case Against Animal Rights. Is Affirmative Action Morally Justified? Albert Mosley: The Case for Affirmative Action. Louis P. Pojman: The Case Against Strong Affirmative Action. Suggestions for Further Reading. Conclusion. John Locke: Of Enthusiasm and the Quest to Truth. APPENDIX: HOW TO WRITE A PHILOSOPHY PAPER. GLOSSARY.