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About the Author
James Fieser is an Assistant Professor of philosophy at the University of Tennessee at Martin. He received his Ph.D. from Purdue University’s Department of Philosophy (1983, 1986). He has published articles on the topics of the philosophy of religion, rights theory, environmental ethics, moral skepticism, David Hume, and Thomas Aquinas. He has created several World Wide Web sites in philosophy, including the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
Table of Contents
Book I: THE HISTORY OF PHILOSOPHY
PART ONE: ANCIENT GREEK PHILOSOPHY
PART TWO: HELLENISTIC AND MEDIEVAL PHILOSOPHY5. Classical Philosophy After Aristotle6. Augustine7. Philosophy in the Early Middle Ages8. Aquinas and his Late Medieval Successors
PART THREE: EARLY MODERN PHILOSOPHY9. Philosophy During the Renaissance10. Rationalism on the Continent11. Empiricism in Britain*12. Enlightenment in Philosophy
PART FOUR: LATE MODERN AND 19TH CENTURY PHILOSOPHY13. Kant14. German Idealism15. Utilitarianism and Positivism16. Kierkegaard, Marx, and Nietzsche
PART FIVE: 20TH CENTURY AND CONTEMPORARY PHILOSOPHY17. Pragmatism and Process Philosophy18. Analytic Philosophy19. Phenomenology and Existentialism20. Recent Philosophy
Book II: PHILOSOPHICAL PROBLEMS
PART ONE: THE MEANING OF LIFEPlato (427-347BCE), APOLOGY: "A Life Worth Living"Chuang-tzu (c. 250 BCE), THE CHUANG-TZU: "Living in Accord with the Tao"Leo Tolstoy (1828-1910), MY CONFESSION: "The Inevitability of the Question, 'What is the Aim of Life?'"Jean-Paul Sartre (1905-1980), EXISTENTIALISM AND HUMANISM: "The Human Condition"
PART TWO: PHILOSOPHY OF MINDPlato(427-347), PHAEDO: "Do Minds Survive after Death?"KATHA UPANISHAD (c. 500 BCE): "The Self-God"QUESTIONS OF KING MILIINDA(c. 100 CE): "The Self in Flux"Lucretius (c. 94-55 BCE), ON THE NATURE OF THINGS: "The Mind as Body"Rene Descartes (1569-1650), MEDITATIONS and THE PASSIONS OF THE SOUL: "The Distinction between Mind and Body"Anne Conway (1631-1678), THE PRINCIPLES OF THE MOST ANCIENT AND MODERN PHILOSOPHY: "Blurring the Distinction Between Mind and Body"George Berkeley (1685-1753), THREE DIALOGUES BETWEEN HYLAS AND PHILONOUS: "Consciousness, not Matter, the True Reality"David Hume (1711-1776), TREATISE OF HUMAN NATURE: "The Mind as a Bundle of Perceptions"Gilbert Ryle (1900-1976), THE CONCEPT OF MIND: "Descartes' Myth"*Thomas Nagel (b. 1937): “What is it Like to be a Bat?” John Searle (b. 1932), MINDS, BRAINS, AND SCIENCE: "The Mind-Body Problem"
PART THREE: PHILOSOPHY OF RELIGIONAnselm (1033-1109), PROSLOGIUM: "The Ontological Argument"Thomas Aquinas (1224-1274), SUMMA THEOLOGICA: "Five Ways of Proving God's Existence"Blaise Pascal (1623-1662), THOUGHTS: "Waging on Belief in God"David Hume (1711-1776), AN ENQUIRY CONCERNING HUMAN UNDERSTANDING: "The Irrationality of Believing in Miracles"David Hume (1711-1776), DIALOGUES CONCERNING NATURAL RELIGION: "Against the Design and Cosmological Arguments"*William Paley (1743-1805): NATURAL THEOLOGY: “The Design Argument from Analogy Defended,” J.L. Mackie (1917-1981), EVIL AND OMNIPOTENCE: "The Logical Problem of Evil"*James Fieser (b. 1958): “The Probability Argument for the Existence of God and Alien Pyramid Builders”
PART FOUR: EPISTEMOLOGYPlato (427-347), THE REPUBLIC: "The Ascent to True Knowledge: The Divided Line and Cave"Sextus Empiricus (c. 200 CE), OUTLINES OF PYRRHONISM: "The Goals and Methods of Skepticism"Rene Descartes (1569-1650), MEDITATIONS: "Certainty and the Limits of Doubt"John Locke (1632-1704), ESSAY CONCERNING HUMAN UNDERSTANDING: "The Origin of All Our Ideas in Experience"David Hume (1711-1776), ENQUIRY CONCERNING HUMAN UNDERSTANDING, Sections 4 and 5: "Empiricism and the Limits of Knowledge"Immanuel Kant (1724-1804), CRITIQUE OF PURE REASON: "How Knowledge is Possible"William James (1842-1910), PRAGMATISM: A NEW NAME FOR SOME OLD WAYS OF THINKING: "Pragmatism's Conception of Truth"Bertrand Russell (1872-1970), PROBLEMS OF PHILOSOPHY: "Appearance and Reality"Arthur Eddington (1882-1944), THE NATURE OF THE PHYSICAL WORLD: "Common Sense Knowledge and Scientific Knowledge"Richard Rorty (b. 1931), PHILOSOPHY AND THE MIRROR OF NATURE: "Critique of Traditional Epistemology"
PART FIVE: FREE WILL AND DETERMINISMEpictetus (c. 50-c. 120), HANDBOOK: "Resigning Oneself to Fate"David Hume (1711-1776), ENQUIRY CONCERNING HUMAN UNDERSTANDING: "The Argument for Determinism"Thomas Reid (1710-1796), ESSAYS ON THE ACTIVE POWERS OF MAN: "The Argument for Free Will from Common Sense Beliefs"William James (1842-1919), THE DILEMMA OF DETERMINISM: "How Can We Explain Judgements of Regret"John Searle (b. 1932), MINDS, BRAINS, AND SCIENCE: "The Freedom of the Will"
PART SIX: ETHICSMencius (390-305 BCE) and Hsun-tzu (298-238 BCE), THE MENCIUS and THE HSUN-TZU: "Is Human Nature Inherently Good or Evil?"Plato (427-347 BCE), EUTHYPHRO: "Does God Create Morality?"Aristotle (384-322 BCE), NICHOMACHEAN ETHICS: "Morality and Virtue"*Augustine (354-430): “Love of God as our Primary Good,” Of the Morals of the Catholic ChurchEpicurus (341-271 BCE), LETTER TO MENOECEUS: "Pleasure and Life's Aim"Immanual Kant (1724-1804), FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF THE METAPHYSICS OF MORALS: "The Categorical Imperative"John Stuart Mill (1806-1873), UTILITARIANISM: "Utilitarianism: Basing Morality on Consequences"Friederich Nietzsche (1844-1900), BEYOND GOOD AND EVIL, THE TWILIGHT OF THE IDOLS, and THE WILL TO POWER: "Turning Values Upside Down"Carol Gilligan (b. 1936), IN A DIFFERENT VOICE: "Is there a Characteristically Feminine Voice Defining Morality?"*James Rachels (1941-2003), ELEMENTS OF MORAL PHILOSOPHY: “The Challenge of Cultural Relativism”
PART SEVEN: POLITICAL PHILOSOPHYPlato (427-347 BCE), CRITO: "Obedience to the State"Aristotle (384-322 BCE), POLITICS: "The Natural Basis of Society"Thomas Aquinas (1224-1274), THE TREATISE ON LAW: "Natural Law"Thomas Hobbes (1588-1678), DE CIVE: "The Social Contract"Mary Wollstonecraft (1759-1797), A VINDICATION OF THE RIGHTS OF WOMAN: "The Rights of Women"Karl Marx (1818-1883), MANIFESTO OF THE COMMUNIST PARTY: "The Clash of Class Interests"John Stuart Mill (1806-1873), ON LIBERTY: "The Individual and the Limits of Government"John Rawls (b. 1921), "Justice as Fairness"
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