Phonology: An Introduction to Basic Concepts

Phonology: An Introduction to Basic Concepts

by Roger Lass


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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780521237284
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Publication date: 07/26/1984
Series: Textbooks in Linguistics
Pages: 384
Product dimensions: 5.98(w) x 8.98(h) x 1.06(d)

Table of Contents

To the studentxvii
1Preliminaries: what is phonology? and some related matters1
1.1The domain1
1.2Areas of agreement3
1.3On facts, theories, and 'truth'6
Notes and references9
2Foundations: the phoneme concept11
2.1Segmentation and classification11
2.2Units, realizations, distributions14
2.3'Excess' of data: the phoneme as a solution15
2.4Criteria for phonemic status18
2.5Phonemic analysis and restricting conditions21
2.6Simplicity, symmetry, pattern: the 'as-if' argument25
2.7Problems, I: biuniqueness and overlapping27
2.8Problems, II: linearity violations30
2.9Problems, III: separation of levels31
2.10Problems, IV: 'failure' of allophonic rules34
2.11A salvage operation for separation of levels: 'juncture' phonemes36
Notes and references38
3Opposition, neutralization, features39
3.1Neutralization and the archiphoneme39
3.2The structure of phonological oppositions41
3.3Multiple neutralization46
3.4Neutralization types and archiphoneme 'representatives'49
3.5Neutralization vs. defective distribution: reprise51
Notes and references53
4Interfaces: morphophonemic alternations and sandhi55
4.1Morphophonemic alternations55
4.2Morphophonemics as an 'interlevel'57
4.3Process morphophonemics: Bloomfield59
4.4The Unique Underlier Condition63
4.5The UUC and the Latin consonant-stems64
4.6Summary: implications of underlying forms and processes68
Notes and references73
5'Ultimate constituents', 1: binary features75
5.1Feature theory75
5.1.1Jakobsonian distinctive features75
5.1.2Distinctiveness and redundancy78
5.2Features and 'natural classes'80
5.3A tentative set of segmental phonological features82
5.3.1Major class features83
5.3.2Cavity features84 strictures84 features85 problems in vowel specification86
5.3.3Multiple articulations87
5.3.4Lip attitude88
5.3.5Length of stricture89
5.3.6Secondary apertures89
5.3.7Manner features89
5.3.8Source features90
5.3.10Long vowels, diphthongs, and long consonants91
5.4Features in phonological description: first steps93
5.4.1Segment inventories95
5.4.2Phonological rules97
5.5Capturing natural classes: the role of acoustic features97
Notes and references100
6'Ultimate constituents', 2: non-binary features and internal segment structure102
6.1The homogeneity assumption102
6.2Dissolving binarity: arguments from vowel height104
6.3Non-binary consonantal features107
6.4Internal segment structure, 1: sequential values111
6.5Internal segment structure, 2: the concept of 'gesture'113
6.6A problem: auditory/articulatory asymmetry in vowels118
Notes and references122
7Phonological systems125
7.1The status of systems125
7.2The English Vowel Shift: the argument from non-participation126
7.3The argument from cyclical shifts129
7.4Phonological universals and markedness131
7.5System typology, I: vowel systems134
7.5.1Introduction: what phonemes does a language 'have'?134
7.5.2Long vowels and diphthongs135
7.5.3Basic vowel system types139
7.6System typology, II: consonant systems147
7.6.1Obstruents, 1: stops147
7.6.2Obstruents, 2: fricatives151
7.6.3Some generalizations about obstruents153
7.6.4Sonorants, 1: nasals155
7.6.5Sonorants, 2: 'liquids'157
7.6.6Sonorants, 3: 'semivowels' ('glides', vocoid approximants)159
7.7What phonemes does a language 'have'? revisited160
7.8Polysystematicity and neutralization163
Notes and references166
8Phonological processes169
8.1The concept of process: terminology, theory, problems169
8.2Assimilation and dissimilation171
8.2.1Direction and contiguity171
8.2.2Basic assimilation and dissimilation types173
8.2.3Acoustic assimilation175
8.3Phonological strength177
8.3.1Lenition and fortition177
8.3.2Preferential environments and 'protection'181
8.3.3More on strength hierarchies183
8.4Whole segment processes: insertion, deletion, reordering183
8.5Complex processes and abbreviatory notations190
8.6Natural processes, evaluation measures, and explanation195
Notes and references201
9The limits of abstraction: generative phonology203
9.1The conceptual core: 'relation by mediation'203
9.2Abstract analysis: the German velar nasal205
9.3'Abstract segments' and absolute neutralization: Hungarian vowel harmony208
9.4Some arguments against abstract solutions211
9.5Testing abstract analyses: the role of external evidence214
9.6Constraining the theory222
9.7Abstractness: some conclusions232
Notes and references233
10Beyond the segment: prosodies, syllables, and quantity236
10.1'Reduction': how primitive are primitives?236
10.2Prosodic phonology238
10.2.1A first approach to prosodies238
10.2.2Types of prosodies242
10.2.3The prosodic treatment of vowel harmony244
10.3.2The reality of the syllable: quantity250
10.3.3Canonical quantity and 'compensation'257
10.3.4More arguments for the syllable260
10.3.5Delimiting syllables262
Notes and references268
11Dependency relations271
11.1The concept of dependency271
11.2Intrasegmental dependencies: the structure of vowels274
11.3Vocalic processes in a dependency framework279
11.4The structure of consonants: the categorial gesture282
11.5The articulatory gesture285
11.6The initiatory gesture289
11.7Lenition revisited291
Notes and references293
12Non-static phonology: connected speech and variation294
12.2Connected and casual speech295
12.3Systemic effects, tempo hierarchies, and rule interactions298
12.4Variation and variables: the social dimension304
12.5Individual variation: the lexical dimension310
Notes and references313
13Phonological change315
13.1What changes? Phonetic change and phonologization315
13.2Split and merger318
13.3Morphophonemic rules, morphologization, and analogy320
13.4The mechanism of sound change322
13.4.1'Regularity' and reconstructability322
13.4.2Lexical diffusion and the origin of regularity324
13.4.3Phonetic gradulness: variation and change329
13.4.4Phonetic gradualness and 'missing links'332
Notes and references338
AppendixPhonetic and other symbols339
General index353
Index of names361

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