ISBN-10:
0824778863
ISBN-13:
9780824778866
Pub. Date:
04/29/1988
Publisher:
Taylor & Francis
Photoelectric Sensors and Controls: Selection and Applications / Edition 1

Photoelectric Sensors and Controls: Selection and Applications / Edition 1

by Scott Juds

Hardcover

Current price is , Original price is $335.0. You

Temporarily Out of Stock Online

Please check back later for updated availability.

Item is available through our marketplace sellers.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780824778866
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Publication date: 04/29/1988
Series: Mechanical Engineering Series , #63
Pages: 400
Product dimensions: 8.50(w) x 11.00(h) x 1.25(d)

Table of Contents

Prefacev
Chapter 1Photoelectric Controls and Sensors: Introduction1
1.1Introduction1
1.2Principles of Operation2
1.2.1Conventional unmodulated photoelectrics2
1.2.2Modern pulse-modulated photoelectrics6
1.3Principal Optical Modes of Operation8
1.3.1Thru-beam sensing8
1.3.2Reflex sensing9
1.3.3Proximity sensing10
1.4Photoelectric Trends11
1.4.1Circuit technology12
1.4.2Interference testing13
1.4.3Interfacing13
1.4.4Optics16
1.4.5Packaging16
Chapter 2Optical Fundamentals18
2.1Producing the Beam18
2.1.1Photoelements20
2.1.2Lenses21
2.1.3Beam patterns24
2.2Reflection28
2.2.1Diffuse reflection29
2.2.2Specular reflection30
2.2.3Mixed diffuse and specular reflection31
2.2.4Retroreflection32
2.3Transmission40
2.3.1Refraction40
2.3.2Scattering and absorption43
2.3.3Polarization49
2.4The Spectrum53
2.4.1Source and detector spectra54
2.4.2Filters and dyes57
2.4.3Fluorescence60
2.5Fiber Optics61
2.5.1Total internal reflection61
2.5.2Glass versus plastic fibers63
2.5.3Spectral attenuation66
2.5.4End termination69
2.6Excess Gain69
2.6.1Definition69
2.6.2Sensor characteristics72
2.6.3Environmental effects74
2.6.4Sensor and target variation75
2.7Contrast Ratio77
2.7.1Low-contrast targets77
2.7.2Low-contrast sensor techniques78
2.7.3Contrast and target size82
2.7.4Color contrast83
Chapter 3Photoelectric Optical Configurations87
3.1Diffuse Proximity Sensing87
3.1.1Long-range proximity sensors88
3.1.2Short-range proximity sensors91
3.1.3Fixed-focus proximity sensors94
3.1.4Variable proximity sensors96
3.1.5Ultraviolet fluorescent proximity sensors100
3.1.6Registration mark detection101
3.2Reflex Sensing103
3.2.1Standard reflex sensors104
3.2.2Visible beam sensors109
3.2.3Polarized reflex sensors110
3.3Thru-Beam Sensing115
3.3.1Standard thru-beam sensors115
3.3.2Edge guide control124
3.3.3Data transmission125
3.4Fiber Optics127
3.4.1Thru-beam sensors128
3.4.2Proximity sensors131
3.4.3Reflex sensors134
3.4.4Fiber cable construction135
3.4.5Fiber cable tips139
3.5Scanners141
3.5.1Diameter scanners142
3.5.2Safety light curtains147
3.5.3Multiplexed remote sensor scanners150
3.5.4Other scanners150
Chapter 4Photoelectric Output Interface155
4.1Electromechanical Relays155
4.1.1Construction156
4.1.2Contact styles157
4.1.3Contact materials159
4.1.4Contact protection160
4.1.5Rated life164
4.2Solid-State Relays166
4.2.1Construction169
4.2.2Triacs171
4.2.3Inverse-parallel SCRs174
4.2.4Bridged transistors175
4.2.5Bilateral FETs176
4.3Transistor Interfaces178
4.3.1Construction178
4.3.2NPN sink transistors180
4.3.3PNP source transistors182
4.3.4Optically isolated circuits183
4.4Two-Wire Controls183
4.4.1Construction184
4.4.2Electrical performance186
4.5Analog Interfaces189
4.5.1Circuit adjustment189
4.5.2Output circuits190
Chapter 5Photoelectric Logic193
5.1Timing Logic193
5.1.1Time delay logic194
5.1.2One-shot circuits196
5.1.3Underspeed/overspeed199
5.2Counting Logic200
5.2.1Latch200
5.2.2Preset counter201
5.2.3Totalizing counter202
5.2.4Shift register202
5.3Output Device Logic204
5.3.1Parallel OR205
5.3.2Series AND209
5.4Photodetector Logic213
5.4.1Parallel OR214
5.4.2Sum/difference216
5.4.3Series AND217
5.4.4Fiber optic logic218
5.4.5Multiple LEDs222
Chapter 6Testing Standards227
6.1Optical Standards227
6.1.1Sunlight immunity228
6.1.2Fluorescent light immunity230
6.1.3Excess gain specifications231
6.1.4Field of view and sensing zone specification233
6.2Electrical Standards240
6.2.1Conducted noise immunity240
6.2.2Radio-frequency noise immunity243
6.2.3Transient voltage spike immunity244
6.2.4Output ratings244
6.2.5No false pulse248
6.2.6Safety249
6.3Mechanical/Environmental Standards250
6.3.1Enclosures250
6.3.2Temperature255
6.3.3Humidity256
6.3.4Shock256
6.3.5Vibration258
Chapter 7Selection Questions261
7.1What Requires Detection?262
7.1.1Size262
7.1.2Reflectivity/transmissivity262
7.2Where Is It Located?265
7.2.1Distance265
7.2.2Local environment269
7.2.3Mounting location270
7.3How Fast Does It Move?272
7.3.1Object transition time272
7.3.2Sensor response time274
7.3.3Repeatability275
7.4With What Will the Photoelectric Interface?275
7.4.1Load interface275
7.4.2Power supply interface276
7.5How Much Do Installation and Maintenance Count?277
7.5.1Mounting277
7.5.2Wiring282
7.5.3Alignment and adjustment284
7.5.4Upkeep286
Chapter 8Application Examples289
8.1Material and Process Control290
8.1.1Broken yarn detection290
8.1.2Broken thread detection291
8.1.3Broken wire detection292
8.1.4Web loop control293
8.1.5"Rate of feed" tension control294
8.1.6Web material centering295
8.1.7Web edge control296
8.1.8Web break detection: clear plastic297
8.1.9Web break detection: paper298
8.1.10Web splice detection299
8.1.11Web flaw detection300
8.1.12Roll wind length control301
8.1.13Roll end detection302
8.1.14Trim length control303
8.1.15Filter paper length control304
8.1.16Cutoff saw control305
8.1.17Hypodermic needle quality control306
8.1.18Steel strip misalignment detection307
8.1.19Oven belt control308
8.1.20Sorting potatoes by size309
8.1.21Nail length inspection310
8.1.22Cookie motion detection311
8.1.23Liquid level control312
8.1.24Hopper fill level control313
8.1.25Liquid clarity control314
8.1.26Smoke detection315
8.1.27Smoke density monitor316
8.1.28Missing print detection317
8.1.29Quality control: tile warp318
8.1.30Integrated circuit lead inspection319
8.2Packaging320
8.2.1Label on glass bottle detection320
8.2.2Cap and bottle presence detection321
8.2.3Cap orientation detection322
8.2.4Bottle fill level and cap detection323
8.2.5Reversed cap detection324
8.2.6Liquid level detection325
8.2.7Liquid fill level detection326
8.2.8Wine bottle missing cork inspection327
8.2.9Container spacing adjustment328
8.2.10Fallen bottle control329
8.2.11Aerosol can inspection330
8.2.12Carton sealing331
8.2.13Registration mark detection332
8.2.14Tube orientation333
8.2.15Label position control334
8.2.16Shiny container detection335
8.2.17Indexing: shrink wrap336
8.2.18Glue bead control337
8.3Material Handling338
8.3.1Conveyor jam detection338
8.3.2Container size sorting: two sensors339
8.3.3Container size sorting: one sensor340
8.3.4Container sorting by retro tape341
8.3.5Shift register delayed ejection342
8.3.6Carton counting343
8.3.7Batch counting344
8.3.8Pallet load wrapping control345
8.3.9Palletizer off-load control346
8.3.10Stack height control347
8.3.11Log diverter348
8.4Machine Tool349
8.4.1Bent/broken drill bit detection349
8.4.2Broken drill bit detection350
8.4.3Broken drill bit detection: fiber optics351
8.4.4Mechanical thread detection352
8.4.5Part detection: chute353
8.4.6Small parts detection354
8.4.7Part detection: robotic355
8.4.8Die casting machine protection356
8.4.9Part detection: assembly357
8.4.10Part orientation358
8.4.11Control of sequential operations359
8.5People and Vehicle Detection360
8.5.1Tollbooth control360
8.5.2Vehicle over-height detection361
8.5.3Vehicle detection: drive-up window362
8.5.4Customer detection: bank teller window363
8.5.5Long-range perimeter security364
8.5.6Automatic carwash control365
8.5.7Automatic door control366
8.5.8Automatic door control367
8.5.9Collision avoidance368
8.5.10Photoelectric race track finishes369
Appendix AConversion and Constants371
Appendix BTest Standards and Bibliography373
Appendix CResistance to Chemical Attack377
References379
Index381

Customer Reviews

Most Helpful Customer Reviews

See All Customer Reviews