Representing a further step towards enabling the convergence of computing and communication, this handbook and reference treats germanium electronics and optics on an equal footing. Renowned experts paint the big picture, combining both introductory material and the latest results.
The first part of the book introduces readers to the fundamental properties of germanium, such as band offsets, impurities, defects and surface structures, which determine the performance of germanium-based devices in conjunction with conventional silicon technology. The second part covers methods of preparing and processing germanium structures, including chemical and physical vapor deposition, condensation approaches and chemical etching. The third and largest part gives a broad overview of the applications of integrated germanium technology: waveguides, photodetectors, modulators, ring resonators, transistors and, prominently, light-emitting devices.
An invaluable one-stop resource for both researchers and developers.
|Product dimensions:||6.70(w) x 9.80(h) x 0.90(d)|
About the Author
Kazumi Wada is head of the Microphotonics Laboratory at the University of Tokyo, Japan.
His current research involves device technology of photonic materials and structures. He is particularly interested in the microscale integration of planar lightwave circuits with Silicon and in engineering of material-photon interaction for novel device functions. After his PhD in semiconductor physics he worked at the Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation Laboratory for Large Scale Integration. In 1998 Kazumi Wada joined the Electronic Materials Laboratory of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, USA, before returning to Tokyo.
Lionel C. Kimerling is Director of the Microphotonics and the Materials Processing Center and Professor in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, USA. His research activities address the fundamental science of imperfection in solids and the processing of electronic materials, with an emphasis on both materials science and applications. Lionel C. Kimerling received the prestigious Fellow Award of the Minerals, Metals & Materials Society for his outstanding basic and applied research on defects in semiconductors and for his professional and academic leadership in the field of electronic materials.
Table of Contents
PrefaceDEFECTS IN GERMANIUMIntroductionMethods for Studying Defects and ImpuritiesImpuritiesIntrinsic DefectsSummaryHYDROGEN IN GEIntroductionProperties of Hydrogen in GeHydrogen Passivation of Shallow Donors and Acceptors in GeSummaryEPITAXY OF Ge LAYERS ON BLANKET AND PATTERNED Si(001) FOR NANOELECTRNICS AND OPTOELECTRONICSGeneral IntroductionEpitaxial Growth of GeThick Layers on Si(001)Ge Surface Passivation with SiSEG of Ge in Cavities at the End of OpticalWaveguidesFabrication, Structural, and Electrical Properties of Compressively Strained Ge-on-Insulator SubstratesConclusion and PerspectivesHEAVY DOPING IN Si1-xGex EPITAXIAL GROWTH BY CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITIONIntroductionIn situ Doping of B, P, and C in Si1-x Gex Epitaxial GrowthAtomic-Layer Doping in Si1-xGex Epitaxial GrowthConclusion and Future TrendsFEOL INTEGRATION OF SILICON- AND GERMANIUM-BASED PHOTONICS IN BULK-SILICON, HIGH-PERFORMANCE SiGe: C-BiCMOS PROCESSESIntroductionLocal SOI TechnologyPassive SiliconWaveguide TechnologyModulator TechnologyPhotonics Integration in BiCMOS FlowGermanium Photo Detector - Process Integration ChallengesExample Circuit - 10 Gbit s-1 Modulator with DriverOutlookGe CONDENSATION AND ITS DEVICE APPLICATIONPrinciple of Ge Condensation and Fabrication ProcessGOI Film CharacterizationDevice ApplicationSummaryWAVEGUIDE DESIGN, FABRICATION, AND ACTIVE DEVICE INTEGRATIONIntroductionDesign of Silicon PhotonicWireWaveguiding SystemFabricationPropagation Performance ofWaveguidesIntegration of Si/Silica and Ge Photonic DevicesSummaryDETECTORSIntroductionHistorical BackgroundFiber-Optics RevolutionAvalanche DevicesSi-PhotonicsHigh-Performance Ge DetectorsProcess Options and ChallengesDevice ArchitecturesGe on Si Detectors in Highly Integrated SystemsReliabilityConclusionsGe AND GeSi ELECTROABSORPTION MODULATORSIntroductionEAE in Ge and GeSi:Theoretical and ExperimentalWaveguide CouplingCurrent Progress in Ge and GeSi EAMsConclusionsSTRAINED Ge FOR Si-BASED INTEGRATED PHOTONICSIntroductionBandgap and Strain: TheoryBandgap and Strain: ExperimentStrain-Engineered Tunability of LasersConclusionsGe QUANTUM DOTS-BASED LIGHT EMITTING DEVICESIntroductionFormation of Ge Dots on Si Substrates andTheir Luminescent PropertiesEnhanced Light Emission from Ge QDs Embedded in Optical CavitiesOptically Excited Light Emission from Ge QDsElectrically Excited Light Emission from Ge ODsConclusionGe-ON-Si LASERSIntroductionModeling and Analyses of Band-Engineered Ge Optical Gain MediaFabrication of Band-Engineered Ge-on-SiBand-Engineered Ge-on-Si Light EmittersConclusionsIndex