PhotoShop 4 for Macs for Dummies

PhotoShop 4 for Macs for Dummies

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780764500398
Publisher: Wiley
Publication date: 01/06/1997
Series: For Dummies Series
Edition description: 2ND
Pages: 384
Product dimensions: 7.44(w) x 9.26(h) x 0.82(d)

About the Author

About the Author Deke McClelland has written more than 30 books about desktop publishing and graphics and is the bestselling author of IDG Books Worldwide's Macworld® Photoshop® 4 Bible, CorelDRAW 6 For Dummies®, PageMaker® 6 For Macs® For Dummies®, and PageMaker® 6.5 For Dummies®, Internet Edition. Deke received the Ben Franklin Best Computer Book Award in 1989 and won a Computer Press Award in 1990, 1992, and 1994. He is also the host of the cable television show "Digital Gurus."

Read an Excerpt

Chapter 12

The Great Pixel Roundup (Yee Ha)

In This Chapter

  • Picking the right selection tool
  • Roping pixels with the lasso tools
  • Drawing straight-sided selections
  • Selecting rectangular and oval areas
  • Using the magic wand
  • Selecting with the Color Range command

If you're an old ranch hand, you may find it helpful to think of the pixels in your image as a bunch of cows. A pixel may not have any horns and it rarely moos, but it's a cow all the same. Consider these amazing similarities:

  • Both pixels and cows travel in herds. Come on, when's the last time you saw one pixel out on its own?

  • They're both dumb as dirt. And obstinate to boot.

  • They both eat alfalfa. (Okay, that's a lie. I was just trying to see if you were paying attention.)

  • Neither of them lays eggs.

  • And -- here's the absolute clincher -- you round them both up by using a lasso.

The only difference between pixels and cows, in fact, is in the vernacular. When you lasso a cow or two on the lone prairie, it's called ropin'. When you lasso a mess of pixels, it's called selectin', as in, "'N case you're lookin' for us, Ma, me 'n' Tex'll be out back selectin' pixels."

I'm allowed ta make fun of Westerners 'cause I am one. My great-grandpappy owned a farm in Kansas, my grandpappy worked on a ranch in New Mexikee, my pappy once took us campin' in Wyomin', 'n I've even been on a horse once or twice. Don't know nothin' 'bout you sissy Easterners and Southerners, but I kin make fun of Westerners till the pixels come home.

Dang, how about that dialect? Anyway, after you select the desired pixels, you can do things to them. You can move them, duplicate them, and apply all kinds of alterations that I describe in future chapters. Selecting lets you grab hold of some detail or other and edit it independently of other portions of your image. It's a way of isolating pixels with the intent to manipulate them, just as you might isolate a few cows and milk them, brand them, or just tip them over.

This chapter and Chapter 13 discuss methods for selecting portions of an image. With a little practice, you can rustle pixels better than most hands rope dogies, and that's no bull.

Learning the Ropes

Photoshop 4 provides several selection tools, all labeled in Figure 12-1. These tools include the lasso, the new polygon lasso, four so-called marquee tools, and an automatic color selector known as the magic wand. Here's how they work:

  • Drag inside the image with the lasso to select free-form areas. The shape of the selection conforms to the shape of your drag.

  • Use the polygon lasso tool, which shares a flyout menu with the regular lasso, to draw polygon selections -- that is, selections made up of straight sides. In Photoshop 3, you Option-clicked with the regular lasso tool to draw polygons. You can still use that technique in Photoshop 4, but you also have the option of using the dedicated polygon lasso tool.

  • The rectangular marquee tool lets you select a rectangular area. Just drag from one corner of the area you want to select to the other. The outline drawn with the tool looks like a border of moving dots -- which is how marquee managed its way into the tool name.

  • This use of the term marquee has been around for several years now. I suppose somebody thought that the moving dots looked like a movie marquee, but whatever the reason, the term stuck. Computer folks even use it as a verb, as in "Marquee that area over there, won't you Brenda?" "No, I will not, Sam. You can darn well marquee your own areas." These computer discussions can get pretty heated.

  • The elliptical marquee draws oval selections. The word ellipse, incidentally, is what mathematicians say when they're talking about ovals. In fact, I'd just call it the ovoid marquee tool, but I'm afraid that you'd think I was talking about a home pregnancy test.

  • The single-column and single-row marquee tools select one solitary column or row of pixels in your image. Both these tools fall under the limited-use category. In Photoshop 3, the single-row and single-column marquee options resided in the Marquee Tools Options palette. They still have a summer home there, but now you can also reach them at their toolbox address.

  • The magic wand selects areas of continuous color. For example, if you want to select the sky without selecting the clouds, you just click in the sky. At least, that's the way it's supposed to work, but you never know. The magic wand isn't always as magic as you might think.

Getting to the Tools

As explained in Chapter 2, the arrow in the lower-right corner of the marquee and lasso tool icons in the toolbox indicates that a flyout menu of hidden tools lurks beneath each icon.

To switch between the tools on the flyout menus, you can Option-click on whichever tool icon happens to be visible in the toolbox at the time.

You can also select tools using these keyboard shortcuts:

  • Press the M key to access the rectangular and elliptical marquee tools. If the rectangular marquee tool is active, pressing M changes it to the elliptical marquee tool, and vice versa.

  • Press L to get the lasso tools. As with the marquee tools, the same shortcut also switches you between the two lasso tools: If the regular lasso is active, pressing L brings up the polygon lasso.

  • Press W to get the magic wand. The tool is more unpredictable than magic, making W -- for Wacky Wand -- a logical keyboard equivalent.

  • In Photoshop 3, you could temporarily access the wand by Control-clicking when one of the other selection tools was active. In Photoshop 4, Control-clicking brings up a context-sensitive menu, as discussed in Chapter 2. If you were into bad puns, you could say that Adobe took away Control of your magic.

Throwing Lassos

Both of the lasso tools are so easy to use, your newborn could master them. If you don't have a newborn, I guess that you are going to have to muddle through on your own.

Using the regular lasso

I have only one instruction for using the lasso: Trace around the portion of the image that you want to select with the tool. That's it. In Figure 12-2, for example, I dragged around the mushroom to select it independently of its surroundings. As the figure shows, Photoshop displays a dotted outline around the selected area after you release the mouse button. This outline represents the exact path of your drag. (If you release before completing the shape -- that is, before meeting up with the point at which you began dragging -- Photoshop simply connects the beginning and ending points with a straight line. So you won't hurt anything if you release too early.)

I was careful to draw the outline just right in Figure 12-2. There's no trick to it; I've just had plenty of practice. If your outlines aren't quite so accurate, however, don't sweat it. There are plenty of ways to modify the outline after you draw it, as I explain in Chapter 13.

Drawing straight-sided selections

Consider the image shown in Figure 12-3. Suppose you wanted to select that cube-with-a-ball thing in the center of the image. You could drag around it with the lasso tool, but a better option is to use the polygon lasso, which makes it easy to create selections with straight sides.

The figure shows a close-up view of one of the many cool and unusual images in the Digital Stock "Cyberstock" image collection, by the way.

To select an object like this, click with the polygon lasso to set the beginning of the first line in the selection. Then move the mouse to the point where you want the line to end, and click again. Keep clicking to create new line segments. To complete the selection, you have two options. If you double-click, Photoshop draws a segment between the spot you double-click and the first point in your selection. You can also move the cursor over the first point in your selection until you see a little circle next to the polygon lasso cursor. Then simply click to close the selection.

Now, if you paid particular attention to the image in Figure 12-3, you may have noticed that part of the selection is curved. "Hey," you ask, "what up with that? I thought the polygon lasso created straight-sided selections." Well, the answer is that you can switch to the regular lasso in midselection to create a curved segment. Just press and hold down the Option key and drag to draw your curved line. When you release the Option key, the tool reverts back to the polygon lasso.

You can also press Option while drawing a selection with the regular lasso to access the polygon lasso. Just press Option and click to set the endpoints of your straight-sided segments, as you normally do with the polygon lasso. To start another curved segment, just drag. You can keep the Option key down or not -- it doesn't matter. But be sure that the mouse button is down any time you press or release the Option key, or Photoshop will complete the selection outline.

The very clever in the audience will realize that because of this Option-key thing, you really only need to make friends with one or the other of the lasso tools. The one time when you might really need to switch back and forth between tools is when modifying an existing selection outline, as explained in Chapter 13. When you have an existing selection outline, the Option key subtracts from the selection in Version 4. So you can't use Option to switch between lassos in that instance.

Exploring your lasso options

Whether you use the regular lasso or the polygon lasso, you can modify the performance of the tool via the two check boxes in the Lasso Options palette. (The palette's called the Polygon Lasso Options palette if you're using the polygon lasso.) To display the palette, double-click on the tool icon in the toolbox or press Return while the tool is selected.

Though small in number, the options for the lasso tools are some tough little hombres:

  • First off, both options -- Feather and Anti-aliased -- affect future selection outlines drawn with the lasso tool. If you want to modify an outline that you've already drawn, you have to choose a command under the Select menu. Because these commands affect outlines drawn with any tool, I describe them in the next chapter, "More Fun with Selections."

  • Normally, selections drawn with the lasso tools have soft, natural-looking edges. As I mention in Chapter 8, this softening is called antialiasing. To turn the softening off, click on the Anti-aliased check box in the palette to get rid of the check mark. From now on, outlines drawn with the tool will have jagged edges.

  • Figure 12-4 shows two lassoed selections moved to reveal the white background in the image. In the left example, the Anti-aliased check box was turned off; in the right example, the option was turned on. The edges of the left example are jagged; those of the right example are soft. (The next chapter explains all the ways to move selections. But if you want to try moving a selection now, just drag it with the move tool, which is the top right tool in the toolbox. Or [Command Key]-drag with any other tool but the pen or hand tool.)

  • Most of the time, you want to leave the Anti-aliased check box turned on. Just turn it off when you want to select precise, hard-edged areas. (Which may be never. Who knows?)

  • Enter a value into the Feather option box to make the outline fuzzy. The value determines the radius of the fuzziness in pixels. If you enter a value of 3, for example, Photoshop extends the fuzzy region 3 pixels up, 3 pixels to the left, 3 pixels down, and 3 pixels to the right. As demonstrated in the first example of Figure 12-5, that's a lot of fuzz. A higher value results in a more fuzzy selection outline, as witnessed in the right example, which sports a Feather value of 10.

  • Anytime one of the lasso tools is active, you can highlight the Feather value by pressing the Return key. Then just enter a new value and press Return again to apply it. You don't even have to move your mouse. That's what I call slick shootin'.

Selecting Rectangles, Squares, Ellipses, and Circles

If you want to create a selection that's rectangular or elliptical, you use -- guess what -- the rectangular and elliptical marquee tools.

The rectangular and elliptical marquee tools are so easy to use that they make the lasso look complicated. You just drag from one corner to the opposite corner and release the mouse button. (Okay, ovals don't have corners, so you have to use your imagination a little bit.) The dotted marquee follows the movements of your cursor on-screen, keeping you apprised of the selection outline in progress.

But Photoshop has never been one to provide you with only one way to use a tool -- or, in this case, two tools. For example, you can also use these tools to select perfect squares or circles. The program's cup of flexibility forever runneth over, and the marquee tools are no exception.

Grabbing a square or circle

Every so often, you may feel the urge to apply some puritanical constraints to your selection outlines. Enough of this random width and height business -- you want perfect squares and circles. Lucky for you, Photoshop obliges these fussbudget impulses by letting you constrain shapes drawn with the marquee tool:

  • To draw a perfect square, press the Shift key after you begin dragging with the rectangular marquee tool. To draw a perfect circle, press Shift after you begin dragging with the elliptical marquee tool.

  • Drawing squares and circles is a little trickier than you might expect. For the best results, you should first begin dragging; then press and hold Shift, drag to the desired location and release the mouse button, and finally release Shift. In other words, press Shift after you start the drag and hold it until after you complete the drag.

  • If you press Shift before dragging, you run the risk of adding to the previously selected area, as I describe in lucky Chapter 13. Here's the deal: If a portion of your image was selected before you started Shift-dragging, Photoshop sees to it that that area remains selected and selects the marqueed area as well. Meanwhile, the shape of the marquee is not constrained to a square or a circle. Befuddling, huh? If this happens to you, press [Command Key]-Z to undo the selection and try again, this time taking care to press Shift during -- not before -- your drag.

The marquee tools can come in handy not only for selecting part of your image, but for creating geometric shapes as well. For example, if you want to draw a rectangle, create a marquee with the rectangular marquee tool. Then choose Edit-->Stroke to stroke the marquee with the foreground color -- in other words, to paint a line along the marquee. For more on the Stroke command, see the section "Your Image Needs Strokes, Too," in Chapter 14.

Getting even more control over selections

Are you crazed for control? Do your tyrannical desires know no bounds? If so, you probably won't be appeased by drawing a square or a circle. What you want is to apply even more stringent constraints.

For example, say that you're the sort of pixel-oppressor who wants to select a rectangular or oval area that is exactly twice as wide as it is tall. With your marquee tool selected, press Return to display the Marquee Options palette. Then choose Constrained Aspect Ratio from the Style pop-up menu, as shown in Figure 12-6. The Width and Height options boxes then come to life, letting you specify an aspect ratio, which is a precise proportion between the wideness and tallness of a marquee. To make the marquee twice as wide as it is tall, enter 2 as the Width value. Then press Tab to highlight the Height value and enter 1. The deed is done.

But that's not all. You can also set up the marquee to select a row or column of pixels that is a single pixel tall or wide. To do this, select the Single Row or Single Column icon from the marquee flyout menu in the toolbox or just select the tool option from the Shape pop-up menu in the upper-left corner of the Marquee Options palette. Then click to create the marquee. If you select Single Row, the marquee is one pixel tall and extends across the entire width of your image; if you select Single Column, the marquee is one pixel wide and as tall as your image. After you click to create the marquee, you can drag it to reposition it if necessary.

Finally, to constrain the marquee to an exact size, select Fixed Size from the Style pop-up menu. Then enter the exact dimensions of your desired marquee into the Width and Height option boxes. The values are always measured in pixels. It's very unlikely that you may ever want to do this -- even if you live to be 103 -- but I didn't want you to think that I neglected to explain one of these silly options for no good reason.

One last item submitted for your approval: Like the Lasso Options palette discussed earlier in this chapter, the Marquee Options palette sports Anti-aliased and Feather options, which respectively soften the selection outline and make it blurry. However, the Anti-aliased check box is dimmed when you use the rectangular single column, or single row marquee tools. Perpendicular edges never need softening because perpendicular edges can't be jagged. Antialiasing, therefore, would be a waste of time.

Drawing from the center out

As I mentioned earlier, you draw a rectangle or oval from corner to opposite corner. But you can also draw a marquee from the center outward. To do this, begin dragging with either marquee tool and then press Option.

If you decide midway into your drag that you don't want to draw the shape from the center outward, just release the Option key and continue dragging. What was once the center of the marquee now becomes a corner.

To draw a square or circle from the center outward, press both Shift and Option after you begin dragging with the appropriate marquee tool. (If you press Shift and Option before you begin dragging, you select the intersection of two selections, as explained in Chapter 13.)

Wielding the Wand

The magic wand is even easier to use than the marquee tools. (Pretty soon, things will get so easy that you won't need me at all.) But it's also the most difficult selection tool to understand and predict. To use the tool, you just click inside an image. Photoshop then selects the area of continuous color that surrounds the cursor.

'Scuze me while I click the sky

Figure 12-7 provides an example of how the magic wand works. In the first image, I clicked with the magic wand tool in the sky above the fake dinosaur. Photoshop automatically selected the entire continuous area of sky. In the second example, I made the selection more apparent by pressing the Delete key to remove the color, which filled the selection with the background color, white. I also got rid of the selection outline by deselecting the area. (Don't worry, I explain deleting and deselecting in full, rich detail in future chapters.)

Notice that the wand selects only uninterrupted areas of color. The patch of sky below the creature's tail, for example, remains intact. Also, the selection bit slightly into the edges of the dinosaur. Very small pieces along the top of the plastic behemoth were removed when I pressed Delete.

The next section explains how to modify the magic wand's performance to select more or fewer pixels. The section after that offers an alternative to try when you can't get the magic wand to select the stuff you want to select.

Teaching the wand tolerance

You can modify the performance of the magic wand by double-clicking on the wand icon in the toolbox or pressing Return with the tool selected. Either way, the Magic Wand Options palette appears, offering three options -- Anti-aliased, Sample Merged, and Tolerance.

I covered Anti-aliased earlier, in the section "Exploring your lasso options," so I won't beat that poor horse anymore. Sample Merged only comes into play when your image contains more than one layer, as discussed in Chapter 15. When Sample Merged is turned off, the magic wand selects colors on the active layer only. If you want the magic wand to select colors from all visible layers, turn the option on.

That leaves the Tolerance value, which has the most sway over the performance of the magic wand. It tells Photoshop which colors to select and which not to select. A lower Tolerance value instructs the wand to select fewer colors; a higher value instructs it to select more colors.

Color Plate 12-1 shows what I mean. Each row of images demonstrates the effect of a different Tolerance value, starting with the default value of 32 at the top and working up to 180 at the bottom. In each case, I clicked at the same location, just to the right of the big giraffe's schnoz. The left image in each row shows the selection outline created when I clicked; the right image shows what happened when I deleted and deselected the selection.

In the color plate, a Tolerance value of 32 selected too little sky; a value of 180 selected all the sky but also got some huge chunks of giraffe face and rolling foothill. A value of 90 appears to be just right.

The problem is, finding the best Tolerance setting is a completely random exercise in the futile art of trial and error. Like changes to any tool setting, changes to the Tolerance value have no effect on the current selection. You have to click with the magic wand to try out each and every new value. In fact, here's the typical approach:

  1. Click with the magic wand tool.

    The point at which you click marks the base color -- the one Photoshop uses to judge which other colors it should select.

  2. Express displeasure with the results.

    Gnash your teeth for good measure.

  3. Press the Return key.

    Pressing Return while the magic wand is active displays the Magic Wand Options palette -- if it's not already visible -- and highlights the Tolerance value.

  4. Enter a new Tolerance value and press Return.

    Enter a higher value to select more colors next time around; enter a lower value to select fewer colors.

  5. Choose Select-->None or press [Command Key]-D.

    Photoshop deselects the previous selection.

  6. Repeat Steps 1 through 5 until you get it right.

Believe me, even longtime Photoshop hacks like me who've been using the software since Copernicus discovered that the Earth orbits the sun go through this ritual every time they use the magic wand tool. What can I say? It's a useful little tool, but it requires some experimenting.

Selecting with the Better Magic Wand

Photoshop provides an even better magic wand in the form of the Color Range command, which is found under the Select menu. This command lets you select multiple areas of color at a time, even if they aren't continuous. Also, you can adjust the equivalent of the Tolerance setting and see its effect on the selection before you apply the command. The Color Range command is a little complex, but it makes the magic wand look like dog meat.

If you were to investigate the Color Range command and its accompanying dialog box on your own, you might mistake it for one of the most complicated Photoshop functions. But deep down inside, it's a pussycat. You just have to know which options to use and which to ignore.

Strolling through the Color Range

Because we're venturing into some pretty unfriendly territory, I'm going to step you through the Color Range command. Just look where I tell you to look and avert your eyes from the scary stuff, and you won't go wrong.

  1. Select the eyedropper tool.

    You select the eyedropper by pressing the I key.

  2. Click on a spot inside the area you want to select.

    Use the eyedropper as if it were the magic wand tool. Nothing becomes selected, of course, but you change the foreground color. The Color Range command uses the foreground color as the base color, just as the magic wand uses the color on which you click as the base color.

  3. Choose Select-->Color Range.

    The Color Range dialog box shown in Figure 12-8 appears. I've taken the liberty of dimming all the options that aren't important.

    The selection preview box shows your selection in black and white. The white areas are selected, the black areas are not selected, and the gray areas are blurred selection edges (just as if you had feathered them).

    In case you're wondering what that big black blob is in the middle of Figure 12-8, it represents the giraffe image shown in Color Plate 12-2. Before choosing the Color Range command, I clicked to the right of the big giraffe's snout.

  4. Change the Fuzziness value from 1 to 200 to adjust the tolerance.

    As with the magic wand's Tolerance setting, higher Fuzziness values select more colors, lower values select fewer colors. As you change the value, the selection preview box shows you how the new Fuzziness setting affects the selection. In Figure 12-9, you can see how the selected area -- in white -- grows as I increase the Fuzziness value.

  5. Click on the OK button when you finish.

    Or press Return. Photoshop selects the area displayed as white in the selection preview.

The left example in Color Plate 12-2 shows the result of applying the Color Range command with a maximum Fuzziness value of 200 to the giraffe image. I then pressed Delete to fill the selection with white and deselected the image to arrive at the right example. The Color Range command selected colors on both sides of the giraffe, even though I lifted the base color from the right half of the sky.

The Color Range dialog box in Version 4 offers an Invert check box, which does the same thing as the Select-->Inverse command: It selects everything that's currently not selected and deselects everything that's selected. In other words, it selects the exact opposite of what's currently selected. For more on the Select-->Inverse command, see the section "Swapping what's selected for what's not," in Chapter 13.

If you choose the Color Range command when a portion of your image is selected, the command selects colors only if they fall inside the current selection. Colors outside the selection are ignored. Therefore, you generally want to press [Command Key]-D to deselect the image before choosing Select-->Color Range. Doing so makes the entire image accessible to the command.

Broadening your color base

Despite the Color Range command's prowess, I wouldn't call Color Plate 12-2 an unqualified success. A lot of blue remains in the second example that the magic wand managed to pick up in Color Plate 12-1.

The fact is, the magic wand and Color Range commands evaluate colors differently (which is why their color-sensing options -- Tolerance and Fuzziness -- have different names). The wand uses the Tolerance value to decide whether colors are similar to the base color and then selects them. The Color Range command selects all occurrences of the base color in an image and then feathers the selection according to the Fuzziness value. So the magic wand creates definite selection outlines with antialiased edges; the Color Range command creates more nebulous ones with blurry edges.

But there's more to the Color Range command, Horatio, than is dreamt of in your philosophy. Unlike the magic wand, the Color Range command lets you specify more than one base color. After choosing Select-->Color Range, move the cursor outside the Color Range dialog box and over the image. The cursor changes to the eyedropper, allowing you to change the base color if you like. Press and hold the Shift key, and you see a small plus sign appear next to the eyedropper. Click with this cursor to add a second base color. Continue Shift-clicking to add a third base color, fourth, fifth, and so on. Add as many as you like.

In Color Plate 12-3, I specified three base colors. I set the first one before choosing Select-->Color Range by clicking to the right of the giraffe nose with the eyedropper tool, just as in Color Plate 12-2. I set the other two by Shift-clicking in the image while inside the Color Range dialog box, once above the giraffe's ear and once below its neck (as the cursors in the color plate indicate).

Adding base colors increased the size of the selected area. To make the selection outline less blurry, I lowered the Fuzziness value to 60. The first image in Color Plate 12-3 shows the resulting selection outline; the second image shows what happened when I deleted and deselected. Even though the background is now completely white, the giraffes still blend in naturally, an effect that you can't easily achieve with the magic wand.

It is possible to add too many base colors. As a result, you may select portions of your image that you don't want to select. If this happens, you can delete base colors from inside the Color Range dialog box by Option-clicking on the image. When the Option key is pressed, a little minus sign appears next to the eyedropper cursor.

If adding and deleting base colors start to get confusing, you can reset the selection in the Color Range dialog box by clicking on the image without pressing Shift or Option. This returns you to a single base color.

Table of Contents

Introduction.

PART I: What the …? Aagh, Help Me!

Chapter 1: Meet Dr. Photo and Mr. Shop.

Chapter 2: Canvassing the On-Screen Canvas.

Chapter 3: Now the Fun Really Begins.

PART II: The Care and Feeding of Pixels.

Chapter 4: Sizing Up Your Image.

Chapter 5: Auntie Em versus the Munchkins (Death Match).

Chapter 6: Save Before You Say Goodnight.

Chapter 7: Going to Hard Copy.

PART III: Tiptoe through the Toolbox.

Chapter 8: Paint Me Young, Beautiful, and Twisted.

Chapter 9: Making a Mockery of Reality.

Chapter 10: Cleaning Up Goobers.

Chapter 11: Turning Back the Digital Clock.

PART IV: Select Before You Correct.

Chapter 12: The Great Pixel Roundup (Yee Ha).

Chapter 13: More Fun with Selections.

Chapter 14: Coloring Inside the Lines.

PART V: So, You Say You're Serious about Image Editing.

Chapter 15: Layers upon Layers upon Layers.

Chapter 16: Digital Graffiti.

Chapter 17: Forays into Filters.

Chapter 18: Drawing Color from a Dreary Wasteland.

PART VI: The Part of Tens.

Chapter 19: Ten Tricky Techniques to Assign to Memory.

Chapter 20: Ten Amusing Ways to Mess Up a Loved One's Face.

Chapter 21: Ten Things to Do with Your Photoshop Masterpiece.

Appendix A: How to Install Photoshop.

Appendix B: Photo Credits.

Index.

Book Registration Information.

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