Physical Change and Aging: A Guide for the Helping Professions

Physical Change and Aging: A Guide for the Helping Professions

by Sue V. Saxon

Paperback(Older Edition)



"[This book] has been honed into an elegant compendium. This outstanding work should be widely read — it is perhaps the best example of an integrative approach to gerontology." Score: 94, 4 stars


This book serves as an authoritative textbook and guide to the physical changes and common pathologies associated with the aging process, with special emphasis on the psychological and social implications of these changes in the lives of older adults. This fifth edition presents the newly available research findings that differentiate "normal" aging from actual pathology.

The authors provide a thoroughly updated and expanded review of important topics in aging, including death and grieving, complementary and alternative therapies, nutrition, exercise, and much more. The book also demonstrates how the elderly population can gain greater personal control over aging through lifestyle modifications and preventive health strategies.

Key topics introduced and discussed:

  • Psychosocial theories of aging
  • Changes and disorders in the skeletal, nervous, cardiovascular, and respiratory systems
  • Dementia, delirium, and mild cognitive impairment
  • Aging in persons with lifelong disabilities

This volume serves as a comprehensive textbook for students studying to become health care professionals, and is also a fundamental resource for gerontologists, nurses, social workers, psychologists, rehabilitation specialists, clergy, and counselors.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780913292471
Publisher: Tiresias Press, Incorporated
Publication date: 01/28/1994
Edition description: Older Edition
Pages: 448
Product dimensions: 5.51(w) x 8.27(h) x (d)

About the Author

Sue V. Saxon, PhD, is a Professor Emeritus, School of Aging Studies, University of South Florida. She received her PhD in Developmental Psychology and Counseling from Florida State University and had additional graduate work at the University of Wisconsin in Physiological Psychology. She was a Research Psychologist for the National Institutes of Health and the Laboratory of Perinatal Physiology, University of Puerto Rico Medical School before joining the faculty in Behavioral Sciences at the University of South Florida. As a charter faculty member in the Aging Studies program she developed and taught numerous courses in aging as well as presenting workshops, in-service training, and authoring a number of books and chapters in books on aging. She has been designated a Gerontological Pioneer for outstanding achievement and exemplary contributions to the field of Gerontology by the Southern Gerontological Society.

Mary Jean Etten Ed.D has been a Tenured Full Professor in the College of Nursing at St. Petersburg College where she taught nursing, gerontology, thanatology, and developed innovative curriculum teaching hospice care and gerontological nursing. She is currently an adjunct lecturer in Thanatology in the School of Aging Studies at the University of South Florida. Dr. Etten attained a Doctoral degree in Education at Nova Southeastern University, an M.A. in Gerontology, M.A. in Counseling and an M.S. in Nursing from the University of South Florida and is a Gerontological Nurse Practitioner. She is a Fellow in Thanatology and is Board Certified as a Music Practitioner. She has authored several books and manuals as well as journal articles and lectures throughout the United States. Dr. Etten helped found Suncoast Hospice 33 years ago, and is active on several boards and committees in leadership roles in Hospice and with the Institute for Healing through Sound and Music. She was named Florida Nurse Educator of the Year in 2002, and also received the National Association of Gerontology in Higher Education Part-time Faculty Recognition award. In 2004 she received the Sue V. Saxon Outstanding Teaching Award, School of Aging Studies, University of South Florida, for her outstanding teaching in Thanatology.

Elizabeth Perkins Ph.D(c), RNMH, is a Doctoral Candidate in the School of Aging Studies at the University of South Florida, where she also completed a BA (summa cum laude) in Psychology. In addition, Ms. Perkins is an RNMH from the Hereford and Worcester College of Nursing and Midwifery, England - a registered nurse who is trained specifically to care for people with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (IDD). Her clinical nursing and managerial experience spans both the general aging population, and persons with IDD in nursing home and residential long-term care settings. She has taught the Physical Change and Aging undergraduate course for several years at the University of South Florida, where she has twice received awards for her outstanding teaching.
Ms. Perkins' national leadership activities include being the current President of the Gerontology Division of the American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities. She is also the present Co-convener of the Formal Interest Group on Developmental Disabilities for the Gerontological Society of America. Her research is focused on quality of life issues for aging adults with IDD and their caregivers. In 2006 she was awarded the Mattie J. T. Stepanek Caregiving Scholarship, cosponsored by Johnson & Johnson and the Rosalynn Carter Institute for Caregiving, in recognition of her work in this area.

Read an Excerpt


Table of Contents

Preface xiii

1 Perspectives on Aging 1

Basic Concepts in Physical Aging 2

Patterns of Disease 4

2 Theories of Aging 9

Stochastic Theories 9

Nonstochastic Theories 11

Psychosocial Theories of Aging 13

3 The Skin, Hair, and Nails 21

Psychosocial Implications 21

Components of the Skin 23

Functions of the Skin 24

The Hair 25

The Nails 25

Age-Related Changes in the Skin 25

Age-Related Changes in the Hair 28

Age-Related Changes in the Nails 28

Age-Related Disorders of the Skin 29

Prevention of Skin Cancer 37

Tips for Maintaining Health Skin 38

4 The Musculoskeletal System 41

The Skeletal System 41

Age-Related Changes in the Skeletal System 44

Age-Related Skeletal System Disorders 45

The Muscles 56

Specific Age-Related Disorders in Muscles 60

5 The Nervous System 65

The Central Nervous System 68

The Peripheral Nervous System 73

Age-Related Changes in the Nervous System 74

Age-Related Nervous System Disorders 78

Learning and Memory 85

6 Dementia and Delirium 89

Delirium 89

Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) 91

Dementia 92

Primary Dementias 93

Secondary Dementias 102

7 The Sensory Systems 107

Vision 109

Age-Related Changes in Vision 111

Age-Related Disorders of the Visual System 116

Audition (Hearing) 119

Age-Related Changes in Hearing 122

Age-Related Disorders of Hearing 126

Vestibular System 127

Age-Related Changes in the Vestibular System 128

Age-Related Disorders of the Vestibular System 128

Taste (Gustation) 130

Age-Related Changes in Taste 130

Smell (Olfaction) 131

Age-Related Changes in Smell 131

Age-Related Disorders in Taste and Smell 132

Skin (Cutaneous) Senses 132

Age-Related Changesin the Skin Senses 132

The Importance of Sensory Changes in Aging 133

8 The Cardiovascular System 135

Anatomy and Physiology of the Cardiovascular System 136

Age-Related Cardiovascular Changes 142

Age-Related Disorders of the Cardiovascular System 145

Vascular Disorders 159

9 The Respiratory System 163

The Structure of the Respiratory System 163

Functions of the Respiratory System 166

Age-Related Changes in the Respiratory System 167

Age-Related Disorders of the Respiratory System 170

Prevention of Respiratory Disease 174

10 The Gastrointestinal System 177

Components and Functions of the Gastrointestinal System 178

Age-Related Changes in the Gastrointestinal System 183

Age-Related Disorders of the Gastrointestinal System 185

11 The Urinary System 201

Structure of the Kidneys 202

Functions of the Urinary System 204

Age-Related Changes in die Urinary System 206

Age-Related Disorders of the Urinary System 208

12 The Reproductive System 221

Components and Functions of the Female Reproductive System 221

Age-Related Changes in the Female Reproductive System 222

Age-Related Disorders of the Female Reproductive System 225

Components and Functions of the Male Reproductive System 228

Age-Related Changes in the Male Reproductive System 230

Age-Related Disorders of the Male Reproductive System 230

Sexuality 231

13 The Endocrine System 237

Structure of the Endocrine System 238

Age-Related Changes and Disorders of the Endocrine System 242

14 The Immune System 255

Structure of the Immune System 255

Age-Related Changes in the Immune System 258

Age-Related Disorders of the Immune System 259

15 Aging with Lifelong Disabilities 263

Congenital Versus Acquired Disability 264

The Complexity of Aging with Disabilities 265

Developmental and Intellectual Disabilities 267

16 Special Topics 283

Alcoholism 283

Aging Changes and Alcohol 285

Falls 286

Foot Care 290

Pain 293

17 Health Promotion and Exercise 301

Health Promotion 302

Disease Prevention 302

Strategies for Change 306

Barriers to Health Promotion 307

Exercise 307

Age-Related Changes Modified by Exercise 308

Exercise Programs 310

General Recommendations for Exercise Programs for Older Adults 312

18 Complementary and Alternative Therapies 317

History 318

Some Complementary and Alternative Therapies 321

19 Nutrition 331

Psychosocial and Cultural Aspects of Nutrition 333

Physiological Aspects of Nutrition 335

Water and Body Fluids 336

Protein 337

Carbohydrates and Fiber 338

Fats 339

Vitamins and Minerals (Micronutrients) 340

Water Soluble Vitamins 341

Fat Soluble Vitamins 343

Minerals 345

Malnutrition 349

Undernutrition 349

Overnutrition 351

Failure to Thrive 351

Food Labels 352

Older Adults and Institutional Diets 353

Basic Food Groups 354

The Food Guide Pyramid 355

Nutritional Recommendations for Older Adults 357

Education 358

Supplemental Nutrition 359

Community-Based Nutrition Programs for Older Adults 360

20 Medications and the Elderly 365

Cultural Responses to Drugs 367

Older Adults' Responses to Drugs 367

Over-the-Counter (OTC) Drugs 370

Generic Drugs 371

Adverse Drug Reactions 372

Drug Therapy 378

Commonly Prescribed Drugs 379

Attitudes Toward "Pill Popping" 395

Prevention of Drug Accidents 395

21 Teaching Older Adults 399

Factors Influencing Learning in Older Adults and Useful Approaches for Enhancing Learning 400

Summary of Teaching Approaches 409

22 Caregiving 413

What Do Caregivers Do? 414

Who Becomes a Caregiver? 414

Caregiving Diversity 415

Influence of Caregiving on Physical, Psychological, Social, and Financial Well-Being 415

Benefits of Caregiving 417

How Health Care Professionals Can Support Caregivers 418

23 Death and Grief in the Later Years 421

Dying and Death 423

Hospice Care 430

Palliative Care 432

Therapeutic Approaches with Dying Persons and Significant Others 433

Bereavement, Grief, and Mourning 434

Death and Loss in the Later Years 440

Physician-Assisted Suicide 446

Advanced Directives 447

Therapeutic Approaches with the Bereaved 451

Appendix A Practical Hints for the Safety of Older Adults 457

Appendix B Resources 461

Glossary 463

Index 473

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