ISBN-10:
0691135045
ISBN-13:
9780691135045
Pub. Date:
05/02/2010
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
Physics and Technology for Future Presidents: An Introduction to the Essential Physics Every World Leader Needs to Know

Physics and Technology for Future Presidents: An Introduction to the Essential Physics Every World Leader Needs to Know

by Richard A. Muller

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780691135045
Publisher: Princeton University Press
Publication date: 05/02/2010
Pages: 536
Sales rank: 198,341
Product dimensions: 7.20(w) x 10.10(h) x 1.50(d)

About the Author

Richard A. Muller is professor of physics at the University of California, Berkeley, and a past winner of the MacArthur Fellowship. He is the author of Nemesis (Weidenfeld & Nicholson) and Physics for Future Presidents (Norton).

Table of Contents

Preface ix

Physics Is the Liberal Arts of High- Tech ix

An Ideal Student x

Physics for the Future Leader xi





CHAPTER 1: Energy and Power and the Physics of Explosions 1

Explosions and Energy 2

Power 19





CHAPTER Review 31





CHAPTER 2: Atoms and Heat 38

Quandaries 38

Atoms and Molecules and the Meaning of Heat 39

Temperature 43

Chapter Review 65





CHAPTER 3: Gravity, Force, and Space 72

Gravity Surprises 72

The Force of Gravity 73

Push Accelerates—Newton's Third Law 75

Orbiting the Earth, and Weightlessness 75

Escape to Infi nity 81

Air Resistance and Fuel Efficiency 83

Momentum 89

Rockets 92

Airplanes, Helicopters, and Fans 95

Convection—Thunderstorms and Heaters 98

Angular Momentum and Torque 99

Chapter Review 101





CHAPTER 4: Nuclei and Radioactivity 108

Radioactivity 108

Fission 138

Fusion 138

Back to the Beginning 143

Chapter Review 143





CHAPTER 5: Chain Reactions, Nuclear Reactors, and Atomic Bombs 152

A Multitude of Chain Reactions 152

Nuclear Weapons Basics 165

Nuclear Reactors 176

Nuclear Waste 182

Chapter Review 193





CHAPTER 6: Electricity and Magnetism 201

Electricity Is . . . 201

Magnetism Is . . . 201

Electricity 202

Electric Power 209

Magnets 212

Electric and Magnetic Fields 216

Electromagnets 217

Electric Motors 221

Electric Generators 221

Transformers 225

Magnetic Levitation 226

Rail Guns 227

AC versus DC 228

Chapter Review 231





CHAPTER 7: Waves Including UFOs, Earthquakes, and Music 239

Two Strange but True Stories 239

Waves 241

Chapter Review 272





CHAPTER 8: Light 282

High- Tech Light 282

What Is Light? 283

Color 286

Images 292

Mirrors 295

Slow Light 299

Lenses 305

Eyes 306

Telescopes and Microscopes 309

Spreading Light— Diffraction 310

Holograms 311

Polarization 312

Chapter Review 316





CHAPTER 9: Invisible Light 324

An Opening Anecdote: Watching Illegal Immigrants Cross the Border in Darkness 324

Infrared Radiation 326

UV—"Black Light" 336

The Ozone Layer 338

Electromagnetic Radiation—an Overview 341

Medical Imaging 346

Ultrasound—Sonar (Bats and Submarines) 351

Chapter Review 353





CHAPTER 10: Climate Change 363

Global Warming 363

Solutions 390

Chapter Review 397





CHAPTER 11: Quantum Physics 404

Electron Waves 405

Laser—a Quantum Chain Reaction 409

The Photoelectric Effect 416

Quantum Physics of Gamma Rays and X-Rays 419

Semiconductor Transistors 420

Diode Transistors 421

Transistors 423

Superconductors 425

Electron Microscope 426

Deeper Aspects of Quantum Physics 427

Tunneling 433

Quantum Computers 435

Chapter Review 436





CHAPTER 12: Relativity 443

A Dialogue 443

Events—and the "Fourth Dimension" 444

Time Dilation 445

Lorentz Contraction 448

Relative Velocities 448

Energy and Mass 450

General Relativity— a Theory of Gravity 458

Questions about Time 459

Chapter Review 460





CHAPTER 13: The Universe 467

Puzzles 467

The Solar System 467

Galaxies 469

Looking Back in Time 474

Expansion of the Universe 474

Dark Energy 476

The Beginning 476

Theory of Everything 481

Chapter Review 482





Epilogue (a poem) 489

Index 493


What People are Saying About This

David Goodstein

Richard Muller has written an amazing and very entertaining book, not only for future presidents but for just about everyone else. It's written in a nonmathematical style, but includes tidbits that will amaze even working physicists. This is a great book that should be read by everyone.
David Goodstein, California Institute of Technology

Vadim Kaplunovsky

Physics and Technology for Future Presidents provides a new answer to an old problem: how to teach physics to nontechnical students. Richard Muller does not 'dumb down' the technical aspects of physics; he skips them altogether and focuses on physics results rather than methods. Fun to read and accessible to general readers, this book presents a lot of interesting physics facts.
Vadim Kaplunovsky, University of Texas, Austin

Frank Wilczek

Modern science and technology have the power to shape the world we live in, for good or for evil. Muller, himself a brilliant, creative scientist, has distilled the most important scientific principles that define our choices, and has presented them clearly and objectively. To make wise decisions, not only future presidents, but future business and community leaders, and thoughtful citizens generally, need the information in this book.
Frank Wilczek, Nobel Prize--winning physicist

A. Zee

Anyone who aspires to be president (of any enlightened organization)--or for that matter, anyone who would like to be led by an informed president--should read this book. Extraterrestrials would surely be amazed that the citizens of the most powerful country on earth routinely elect presidents who proudly profess to know nothing about science and technology. We can only dream that one day presidential debates will include a quiz based on this book.
A. Zee, author of "Fearful Symmetry"

Mark Oreglia

Clear, inviting, and humorous, this is the first nonquantitative book I've seen that covers all the topics of physics. The introduction of current social and political issues is excellent. Students will want to read this book from cover to cover. It could increase scientific literacy significantly.
Mark Oreglia, University of Chicago

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