The investigation of the physical properties of matter has progressed so much during the last hundred years that today physics is divided into a large group of special branches, which are often very distant from each other. These branches arise because of the vast extent of the science itself, and are distinguished by the particular area studied, the method of investigation and so on. An independent and important branch that has developed recently is the physics of thin films. This deals with systems which have only one common property, namely, that one of their dimensions is very small, though all other physical properties of such systems may be different, as well as methods of investigating them. Usually, we investigate the physical characteristics of three-dimensional bodies. Their characteristic prop::!rties are often related to a unit volume, i.e. it is assumed that they are volume-independent. This assumption is legitimate as long as the dimensions are 'normal', i.e. more or less within macroscopic limits; but as soon as one dimension becomes so small that there is a considerable increase in a surface-to-volume ratio, that assumption is no longer valid.
|Edition description:||Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1977|
|Product dimensions:||5.98(w) x 9.02(h) x 0.02(d)|
Table of Contents1. Introduction.- 2. Methods of Preparation of Thin Films.- 2.1 Chemical and Electrochemical Methods.- 2.2 Cathode Sputtering.- 2.2.1 Principle of Diode Sputtering.- 2.2.2 Some Special Systems of Cathode Sputtering.- 2.2.3 Low-Pressure Methods of Cathode Sputtering.- 2.3 Vacuum Evaporation.- 2.3.1 Physical Foundations.- 2.3.2 Experimental Techniques.- 2.3.21 Evaporation Apparatus.- 2.3.22 Substrates and Their Preparation.- 2.3.23 The Most Important Materials for Evaporation.- 2.3.24 Evaporation Sources.- 2.3.25 Special Evaporation Techniques.- 2.3.26 Masking Techniques.- 3. Thin Film Thickness and Deposition Rate Measurement Methods.- 3.1 Balance Methods.- 3.1.1 Microbalance Method.- 3.1.2 Vibrating Quartz Method.- 3.2 Electrical Methods.- 3.2.1 Electric Resistivity Measurement.- 3.2.2 Measurement of Capacitance.- 3.2.3 Measurement of Q-factor Change.- 3.2.4 Ionization Methods.- 3.3 Optical Methods.- 3.3.1 Method Based on Measurements of Light Absorption Coefficient.- 3.3.2 Interference Methods.- 3.3.3 Polarimetric (Ellipsometric) Method.- 3.4 Deposition Rate Monitoring Using Transfer of Momentum.- 3.5 Special Thickness Monitoring Methods.- 3.5.1 Stylus Method.- 3.5.2 Radiation-absorption and Radiation-emission Methods.- 3.5.3 Work-function Change Method.- 4. Mechanism of Film Formation.- 4.1 Formation Stages of Thin Films.- 4.2 Nucleation.- 4.2.1 Capillarity Theory of Nucleation.- 4.2.2 Statistical (Atomistic) Theory of Nucleation.- 4.2.3 Influence of Individual Factors on Nucleation Process.- 4.2.4 Some Experiments for Verification of Nucleation Theories.- 4.3 Growth and Coalescence of Islands.- 4.4 Influence of Various Factors on Final Structure of Film.- 4.4.1 Special Properties of Films Deposited by Cathode Sputtering.- 4.5 Crystallographic Structure of Thin Films.- 4.6 Epitaxial Films.- 5. Composition, Morphology and Structure of Thin Films.- 5.1 Methods for Determination of Chemical Composition of Films.- 5.2 Electron Microscopy of Thin Films.- 5.2.1 Transmission Electron Microscopy.- 5.2.2 Electron-microscopic Examination of Surface by Replica Method.- 5.2.3 Special Types of Electron Microscopes for Direct Image-forming of Film Surface.- 5.2.31 Scanning Microscope.- 5.2.32 Reflection Microscope.- 5.2.33 Emission Microscopes.- 5.2.4 Tunnel Emission and Field Ionization.- 5.2.41 Field Electron Microscope.- 5.2.42 Field Ion Microscope.- 5.3 Diffraction of Electrons.- 5.3.1 Diffraction of High-Energy Electrons in Transmission and in Reflection.- 5.3.2 Low-Energy Electron Diffraction (LEED).- 5.4 X-ray Methods.- 5.4.1 X-ray Diffraction.- 5.4.2 X-ray Microscopy.- 5.5 Auger Spectroscopy.- 6. Properties of Thin Films.- 6.1 Mechanical Properties.- 6.1.1 Experimental Methods for Measurement of Mechanical Properties of Thin Films.- 6.1.2 Stress in Thin Films.- 6.1.3 Mechanical Constants of Thin Films.- 6.1.4 Adhesion of Thin Films.- 6.1.5 Rayleigh Surface Waves.- 6.2 Electrical and Magnetic Properties of Thin Films.- 6.2.1 Conductivity of Continuous Metal Films.- 6.2.2 Conductivity of Discontinuous Metal Films.- 6.2.3 Electrical Properties of Semiconducting Thin Films.- 6.2.4 Galvanomagnetic Effects in Thin Films.- 6.2.5 Superconductivity in Thin Films.- 6.2.6 Conductivity of Thin Dielectric Films.- 6.2.7 Dielectric Properties of Thin Films.- 6.2.8 Ferromagnetic Properties of Thin Films.- 6.3 Optical Properties of Thin Films.- 7. Application of This Films.- 7.1 Optical Applications.- 7.2 Applications in Electronics.- 7.2.1 Electric Contacts, Connections and Resistors.- 7.2.2 Capacitors and Inductances.- 7.2.3 Applications of Ferromagnetic and Superconducting Films.- 7.2.4 Active Electronic Elements.- 7.2.5 Microacoustic Elements Using Surface Waves.- 7.2.6 Integrated Circuits (IC).- 7.2.7 Thin Films in Optoelectronics and Integrated Optics.- 7.2.8 Further Applications.- References.