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Pictorial Encyclopedia of Historic Architectural Plans, Details and Elements
WITH 1,880 LINE DRAWINGS OF ARCHES, DOMES, DOORWAYS, FACADES, GABLES, WINDOWS, ETC.
By JOHN THEODORE HANEMAN
Dover Publications, Inc.Copyright © 1984 Dover Publications, Inc.
All rights reserved.
The common use of the term arcade, is for a considerable number of arches used structurally or decoratively in some architectural composition.
1 An arcade of piers. Plan showing the pier and column in combination.
2 Alternating piers and columns.
3 Arcade of columns, also grouped alternating with piers.
4 Arcade with an engaged order.
5 Arcade with a coupled engaged order.
6–7 Arcades interrupted with piers.
8 Piers and columns staggered in plan.
9 An arcade with interlacing arches.
10 An interior arcade of columns between piers with vertical emphasis.
11 An arcade wherein a smaller one is combined.
12 Large and small columns combined in an interlacing arcade.
13 An arcade on an incline.
14 An arcade with a smaller similar motive superimposed in the pier space.
15 Superimposed arches in an arcade.
16 An arcade within a large arch motive.
17 Superimposed arcades with pointed arches. Columns above piers.
18 Superimposed arcades, columns above column-piers.
19-20 Superimposed engaged orders with arcades between.
21 A colonnade between orders with a smaller similar motive above but with twice the number of arches.
22 Superimposed coupled arches in an arcade motive.
23 A small arcade motive with a larger one above.
24 Small arcades, pointed arches upon columns, above one another.
25 Superimposed arcades of five stories.
26 Superimposed arcades with orders in a facade composition.CHAPTER 2
The arch is a mechanical means of spanning an opening by wedged shaped solids, keeping one another in position, and transforming the vertical pressure of the superimposed load into components transmitted laterally to the abutments.
1–2–3 Archaic examples of openings with corbeled heads, but not true arches.
4 A curved lintel springing from corbels. "Bell arch."
5 Carved head corbels, not a true arch.
6 Primitive form of true arch.
7 Earliest use of the keystone.
8 A "Flat arch" with a segmental "Relieving arch."
9 Pointed arches. "Equilateral," "Lancet," "Drop."
9a With dissimilar intrados and extrados. "Tuscan arch."
10 A "Round headed arch" with voussoirs.
11 A "Three centered arch," or "Basket-handle arch."
12 A "Flat arch."
13 A "Stilted arch," in which the center is higher than the impost of the arch.
14 A "Horse-shoe arch," in which the opening is greater than a semi circle.
15 A pointed "Four centered arch." "Tudor arch."
16 "Skew sided arches."
17–18 Pointed "Foiled," or "Cusped arches."
19 A pointed horse-shoe arch. "Indian," or "Persian arch."
20 An "Ogee arch" with curves of counter flexture.
21–22–23 Variations of arch outlines.
24 Semi circular extrados with an irregularly ornamented intrados.
25 Interlaced horse-shoe arches.
26 Interlaced arches composed of cusps, points and rounds.
27 Interlacing cusped and horse-shoe arches in combination.
28 Superimposed arches, a horse-shoe arch above a multi-foil cusped arch.
29 Concentric round headed arches.
30 Superimposed pointed arches with elaborated cuspings.
The Commemorative or Triumphal arch, as its title indicates, was a composition of one or more arches, serving as a monument, commemorative of some particular occurrence, or as a gate, through which the ancient triumphal processions proceeded.
1 A single opening with a composition of horizontal bands.
2 A mass with a single opening in which the order, an attic and statuary are introduced at the corners for embellishment.
3 Coupled orders and statuary flanking an opening.
4 Two pyramidal masses flanking an opening.
5 An order and attic composition framing a single opening, but with greater emphasis at the opening, obtained by projection.
6 Coupled orders and attic flanking an opening.
7 Orders flanking an opening with a superimposed lesser order in an attic.
8–11–12 Superimposed orders in composition with a single opening.
9 Orders and horizontal bands about a single opening with a double attic for central emphasis.
10 A pylon with a small similar one about a single opening.
13 Two openings in a large mass separated by a column.
14 Two openings in a mass crowned with a cornice, arcaded and colonnaded attics respectively.
15 Coupled orders flanking two openings, the mass emphasized at the corners in the upper part by single orders, the whole crowned with a cornice and attic.
16 Two openings with pedimented orders in a composition with an enriched attic.
17 Three openings in a simple mass, with the central opening made greater and more important by projecting beyond the main mass.
18 A large opening flanked by small ones in a simple mass in a composition of panels, high relief and an entablature.
19 Pyramidal flanking masses with small central openings and a small central motive with the greater opening.
20 A mass with a large central opening and a smaller one at each side, bands at the spring of the central arch, architrave and corner emphasis with an entablature and an attic.
21 Orders framing triple openings. The central arch being higher and further emphasized with a pediment. Carving in high relief upon the surface. The whole terminated with attic and triple pedestals supporting statuary.
22 A large central and smaller side arches within an order composition, with an attic and group of statuary at the center.
23 Three equal openings in an order and attic composition, the center emphasized with a statuary group at the top.
24 Three openings within coupled orders, flanking pedimented niches for statuary; a simple attic terminating the whole.
25 Four openings in an oblong mass, crowned with a colonnaded arcade supporting an attic.CHAPTER 3
The balcony is a platform projecting from the wall of a building, enclosed by a parapet or balustrade and supported upon brackets, corbels, projecting members of wood, metal, or masonry.
1 A rostrum within an arch and at the head of a flight of steps.
2 A rostrum in front of an opening and at the head of a flight of steps on each side.
3–4 A covered rostrum at the head of a flight of steps.
5 The landing at the head of a semi-circular flight of steps serving as a rostrum.
6 A pulpit attached to the side of a column with steps spiraling around the shaft.
7 A balcony supported upon columns.
8 Superimposed balconies supported upon arches.
9 A balcony placed in a wall niche.
10 A free standing pulpit supported by columns.
11 A balcony incorporated in the facade of a building.
12 A metal balcony with a metal support.
13 A metal balcony within a window reveal.
14 A balcony with masonry parapet supported upon a masonry base.
15 A masonry balcony supported upon arches corbeled beyond the wall face.
16 A balustered balcony supported upon brackets projecting beyond the surface of the wall.
17 Two-storied metal balconies resting upon metal brackets.
18 An enclosed or screened balcony upon a bracket.
19 A balcony at the corner of a building supported by a column.
20 A corner balcony supported upon corbeled arches.
21 A corner balcony supported upon brackets.CHAPTER 4
The bay is an architectural motive of one or more stories repeated laterally in a facade. Also a recess or opening in walls.
Dealing with one and two storied motives.
1–5–6 Motive with base and cornice divided by vertical rustication.
2 Columns and entablature forming a bay.
3 An order with a balustrade forming a motive.
4 A high base with pilasters, entablature and attic.
7 An opening flanked with coupled orders and the use of balusters and statuary in the opening.
8 An order extending through two stories interrupting horizontal courses.
9 Semi circular towers springing from a sloping base.
10—11 Vertical divisions made by buttresses, with the horizontal bands carried around them.
12 A colonnade upon a high base with statuary introduced for emphasis.
13 Engaged columns with individual pedestals flanking openings.
14 Similar grouped openings above one another with horizontal bands.
15 Arches upon piers upon a high base.
16 A superimposed colonnade with opening groups between. Arches between the columns of superimposed colonnades.
18 Coupled openings between superimposed coupled colonnades.
19 Superimposed arcades.
20–21 Coupled arches with openings above.
22 Superimposed colonnades with an arcade in the lower and a circular headed opening in the upper.
23 A high base with openings and a colonnade above with large openings between the columns and above those in the base.
24 An arcaded basement with a superimposed arcade within a colonnade.
25 An arcaded base with a superimposed arcade within a colonnade, with a sub-order and balustrade as an enrichment.
26 Arches between the columns of a colonnade, with statuary used as a column emphasis. Openings above the arches and a balustrade and entablature terminating the whole.
27 A gable between buttresses, with a circular opening above coupled circular headed openings.
Dealing with three storied motives
1 A rusticated base with a high opening with architrave and pediment above, terminating with a square opening in a frieze.
2 Base, string courses and entablature, separating a small lower opening and two superimposed arched openings.
3 Coupled orders flanking various sized openings.
4 Similar openings between superimposed orders, with a dormer termination.
5 Similar openings between buttresses, with a dormer termination.
6 Dormers emphasizing large openings above an arcade.
7–8 Plain surfaces emphasized by the grouping of voids above one another.
9 Rustication used as an order with a base and cornice.
10 Superimposed colonnades, the lower extending two stories.
11 Colonnade and arch motive with an attic.
12 Superimposed colonnades of unequal heights, with a band dividing the upper one horizontally.
13 Rustication covering the entire height with a base and cornice.
14–20 A rusticated basement with rustication used as piers for the upper stories, terminated with a cornice and balustrade.
15 Rustication used in the two lower stories, rusticated piers in the upper.
16 Superimposed rusticated piers with horizontal courses.
17 Horizontal division of the facade with rusticated lower story and rusticated piers in the upper, cornice and balustrade termination.
18 Rusticated piers and orders in alternation for two stories, with the piers carried up in the attic.
19 Two lower stories rusticated with the upper emphasized with alternating window motives and vertical rustication.
21 A high base with coupled orders extending two stories, the second story emphasized by the window motives.
22 A base supporting a colonnade extending two stories.
23 Rusticated piers at intervals in the two lower stories, with the piers extending and interrupting a colonnaded arcade in the upper story, crowned with cornice and balustrade.
24 An arcade with superimposed arch motives separated by bands.
25 An arcade with an arched opening above, with rectangular openings in an attic divided by rustication extending the whole height at the corners. Horizontal bands and entablature.
26 Colonnaded basement with horizontal bands dividing the stories.
27 The second story emphasized by an arcade with an order.
28 The basement emphasized with an arcade with order, horizontal bands dividing the stories.
29 Superimposed colonnades, arcades within the two upper ones.
30 A motive with the fenestration dominant.
31 Superimposed arcades, the upper extending two stories.
32 A buttress or pier motive with an arcade in the upper story.
33 Superimposed colonnades of diminishing heights, framing an arcade, pedimented and architraved window and a square one respectively.
34 Superimposed colonnades of coupled columns with arched openings between.
35 A superimposed four column motive of varying heights.
Dealing with four stories and more
1 Horizontal bands dividing the facade, with the introduction of columns at the corners of the upper division.
2 Horizontal bands dividing a facade supported upon corbeled arches above a base with a batter wall.
3 Horizontal bands dividing the facade with a colonnade emphasizing the upper division.
4 Heavy horizontal divisions of the facade with colonnades of unequal height in the two upper divisions. Quoins emphasizing the lower story.
5 Colonnades embellishing the two upper stories of a facade, with the lower divided by a string-course and battered wall.
6 A plain basement and mezzanine with a second floor order composition, extending into an attic story.
7-8 Horizontal bands of varying importance in composition with quoins.
9 Horizontal bands dividing the facade in two parts, the upper embellished with a colonnade, balustrade and statuary and more important window treatment.
10 Three horizontal divisions of a facade, the upper two enriched with superimposed columns and a dormer window spaced above the lower voids.
11 Four stories of superimposed colonnades with arches within the lower three.
12 Three stories of superimposed colonnaded arcades, with a coupled column motive for the top story.
13 String courses dividing the facade with relation to the importance of the floors.
14 An arch with a string-course and a frieze motive.
15 Dissimilar voids and groups in composition with superimposed orders.
16 Superimposed order and arcade motive, terminated with a series of gables.
17 Vertical motives between arches terminating in three-storied turrets, which flank coupled arches.
18 A gable between buttresses, pierced by a three-storied coupled-arch motive and a circular void above.
19 Superimposed orders terminating in a gable motive.
Dealing with interior motives
1–9–15 An order upon a base in combination with an attic order.
2 A colonnade within an opening, the entablature continuing along the wall for horizontal emphasis.
3 An arcade with a panelled attic.
4 Panelled pilasters flanking oblong and semi circular panels.
5–6 Vaulted bays divided by arches at the first story.
7–8 Panel compositions crowned with an entablature.
10 An order with panel groups between.
11 Coupled orders flanking panels.
12 A colonnade with entablature with superimposed compositions between, framing statuary.
13 A colonnade within an arch, the colonnade being of secondary importance.
14 A dome on pendentives with arcaded sides.
16 A vaulted bay with vertical emphasis, flanking an arch and open above.
17 A wall arcade with vertical decoration at the piers and an opening above the arch.
18 An arcade within vertical uprights forming the bay with a window group above.
19 A vaulted bay divided by arches on the first and second stories, with a central opening above.
20 A vaulted bay divided in two by a secondary vertical division with openings between.
21 A vaulted bay with vertical emphasis at the sides enclosing superimposed varied openings.
22 An arcade with an order supporting an arcade with vertical expression at regular intervals.
23 A three storied arch composition between vertical two storied emphasis, with the top story the most important.
24 Superimposed colonnades with an attic motive for openings.
25 Superimposed arcades within an arch.
26 An arcade with arched openings in an attic with vault ribs between.
27 Wall piers with niches and panels above, surmounted by an attic with an order or consoles, all flanking openings.
28 A vaulted bay with vertical sides enclosing an arch, arcade and coupled arches respectively.
29–30 Vaulted bays with superimposed arches and arcades with vertical divisions of secondary importance.CHAPTER 5
A bridge is a structure spanning more or less of a depression, and used as a means of communication from ridge to ridge.
1 A bridge with lintels spanning piers.
2 A single span, masonry or metal foot bridge.
3 A single span masonry bridge with steps.
4 A covered single span bridge from one building to another.
5 A covered single span bridge, a flight of steps within an arcade.
6 A double span bridge with a central pier support and side embankments.
7 A triple span bridge with pier supports.
8 A triple span covered bridge, with arcades on either side of a driveway.
9 A triple span bridge communicating between two levels with a monumental treatment of colonnades, pediments and stairs.
10 A many spanned pier bridge roofed and arcaded.
11 A many spanned pier bridge with covered arcades at either side of the roadway, and with particular emphasis at the ends.
12 A triple span bridge with embellished piers.
13—14—15 Many spanned bridges with various arch and pier treatments.
16—17—18 Span bridges with various fortified tower compositions.
19 A pier bridge with ornamental emphasis at the piers.
20 A pier bridge of many spans with interlacing arches, large and small roadways enclosed within an arcade.
21 A pier bridge of many spans with dwellings flanking the roadway.
22 Spans upon piers where great height is necessary.
23 A single roadway above superimposed arches.
24 Superimposed arcades with three roadways.
25 Arched spans with an arcade above supporting the roadway.
26 A wall used as a bridge with variously shaped openings to lighten the masonry.
27 Superimposed arches with lateral buttressing at the piers, supporting a roadway divided by an arcade supporting another roadway at a higher level.
28 Superimposed arcades supporting roadways.
Excerpted from Pictorial Encyclopedia of Historic Architectural Plans, Details and Elements by JOHN THEODORE HANEMAN. Copyright © 1984 Dover Publications, Inc.. Excerpted by permission of Dover Publications, Inc..
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