ISBN-10:
020140642X
ISBN-13:
9780201406429
Pub. Date:
09/22/1997
Publisher:
Basic Books
Plasma Astrophysics

Plasma Astrophysics

by Toshiki Tajima, Kazunari Shibatu

Hardcover

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780201406429
Publisher: Basic Books
Publication date: 09/22/1997
Series: Frontiers in Physics Series
Pages: 512
Product dimensions: 6.61(w) x 9.40(h) x 1.20(d)

Table of Contents

Preface xvii
1 Introduction
3(38)
1.1 Overall Structure of Plasma Physics and Astrophysics
3(5)
1.2 Introductory Survey
8(5)
1.2.1 Hierarchical Structure of the Universe
8(2)
1.2.2 Structure of Celestial Objects
10(1)
1.2.3 Evolution and Activity of Celestial Objects
11(2)
1.3 Classification of Celestial Objects
13(7)
1.3.1 Three Categories of Celestial Objects
13(1)
1.3.2 Fundamental Processes in Objects in Quasi-Magnetostatic Equilibrium
14(3)
1.3.3 Fundamental Processes in Objects in Quasi-Hydrostatic Equilibrium
17(1)
1.3.4 Fundamental Processes in Objects in Non-Equilibrium
18(2)
1.4 Typical Examples of Celestial Objects
20(21)
1.4.1 Solar Corona
20(4)
1.4.2 Galactic Disks
24(2)
1.4.3 Active Galactic Nuclei
26(3)
1.4.4 Clusters of Galaxies
29(12)
2 Plasma Physics-Modern Astrophysical Perspectives
41(90)
2.1 General Survey
41(12)
2.1.1 Nonmagnetized Plasma
48(1)
2.1.2 Magnetized Plasma
49(4)
2.2 Nonlinear Physics
53(6)
2.3 Turbulence
59(10)
2.3.1 Onset of Turbulence
61(3)
2.3.2 Nondissipative Fully Developed Turbulence in MHD
64(3)
2.3.3 Fully Developed Dissipative Turbulence
67(2)
2.4 Structure Formation and Plasma Filaments
69(13)
2.4.1 Filaments vs. Continua in Plasmas
71(4)
2.4.2 Filamentary Construct of Two-Dimensional MHD(*)
75(2)
2.4.2.1 Statistics of Filaments(*)
77(3)
2.4.3 Filamentary Objects in Three-Dimensional MHD Turbulence(*)
80(2)
2.5 Relaxation and Dissipation
82(10)
2.5.1 Dissipative Vorticity Equation(*)
82(3)
2.5.2 Generalized Relaxation Theory(*)
85(2)
2.5.3 Electron-Positron Proton Plasma(*)
87(3)
2.5.4 Ideal MHD Structures(*)
90(2)
2.6 Stochastic Processes
92(3)
2.7 Anomalous Transport
95(11)
2.7.1 Convective Transport
96(3)
2.7.2 Self-Organized Critical Transport
99(3)
2.7.3 Landau-Ginzburg Transport Equations(*)
102(4)
2.8 General Relativistic Plasma Physics
106(25)
2.8.1 Electromagnetic Waves in a Black Hole Atmosphere
106(5)
2.8.2 General Relativistic MHD
111(6)
2.8.3 Schwarzschild Equilibria(*)
117(14)
3 Fundamental Processes in Hydrostatic and Magnetostatic Objects
131(152)
3.1 Dynamo
131(25)
3.1.1 Introduction to Dynamo Theory
132(13)
3.1.1.1 Kinematic and Dynamic Dynamo
132(1)
3.1.1.2 Cowling's Theorem
132(2)
3.1.1.3 Parker's (1955) Suggestion
134(1)
3.1.1.4 Turbulent Dynamo
134(2)
3.1.1.5 Dynamo Waves
136(3)
3.1.1.6 Results of Kinetic Dynamo(*)
139(1)
3.1.1.7 Present Status of Dynamo Theory(*)
140(5)
3.1.2 Magneotconvection
145(11)
3.1.2.1 Convective Instability
146(2)
3.1.2.2 Thermal (Rayleigh-Bernard) Convection
148(1)
3.1.2.3 Solar Convection
149(1)
3.1.2.4 Incompressible Magnetoconvection
149(4)
3.1.2.5 Compressible Magnetoconvection(*)
153(1)
3.1.2.6 Formation of Intense Flux Tubes(*)
154(2)
3.2 Magnetobuoyancy
156(52)
3.2.1 Magnetic Buoyancy
156(7)
3.2.1.1 What is Magnetic Buoyancy?
156(2)
3.2.1.2 Magnetic Buoyancy Instability and Parker Instability
158(1)
3.2.1.3 Instability Condition for Interchange Mode
159(1)
3.2.1.4 Instability Condition for Undular Mode (Parker Instability)
160(1)
3.2.1.5 Ballooning instability
161(2)
3.2.2 Parker Instability
163(45)
3.2.2.1 Critical Wavelength
163(3)
3.2.2.2 Growth Rate and Critical XXX
166(2)
3.2.2.3 Nonlinear Evolution of the Parker Instability: Most Unstable Mode
168(4)
3.2.2.4 Condition for Shock Waves Formation and Nonlinear Oscillation(*)
172(2)
3.2.2.5 Self-Similar Evolution(*)
174(6)
3.2.2.6 Theory of Nonlinear Parker Instability(*)
180(9)
3.2.2.7 Physical Interpretation
189(8)
3.2.2.8 Comparison with Rayleigh-Taylor Instability
197(2)
3.2.2.9 Application to Solar Emerging Flux(*)
199(2)
3.2.2.10 Three Dimensional Effect: Coupling with Interchange Mode
201(3)
3.2.2.11 Emergence of Twisted Flux Tube(*)
204(1)
3.2.2.12 Effect of Rotation and Shearing Motion(*)
204(4)
3.3 Magnetic Reconnection
208(75)
3.3.1 Flares as Violent Magnetic Energy Release
210(12)
3.3.1.1 What is a Flare?
210(1)
3.3.1.2 Morphology of Flares
210(2)
3.3.1.3 Models of CME Related Flares(*)
212(5)
3.3.1.4 Models of Compact Flares
217(5)
3.3.2 Theory of Magnetic Reconnection
222(21)
3.3.2.1 Magnetic Diffusion
223(1)
3.3.2.2 Sweet-Parker Model
223(2)
3.3.2.3 Petschek Model
225(2)
3.3.2.4 Numerical Simulations of Reconnection
227(1)
3.3.2.5 Tearing Instability
228(2)
3.3.2.6 Coalescence Instability and Explosive Reconnection Model
230(7)
3.3.2.7 Reconnection Driven by Magnetic Buoyancy Instability
237(5)
3.3.2.8 Fractal Nature of Current Sheet
242(1)
3.3.3 Yohkoh Observations of Flares(*)
243(17)
3.3.3.1 LDE (Long Duration Events) Flares(*)
244(1)
3.3.3.2 Large Scale Arcade Formation(*)
245(2)
3.3.3.3 Impulsive Flares(*)
247(2)
3.3.3.4 A Unified Model of Flares(*)
249(3)
3.3.3.5 Transient Brightenings (Microflares) and X-ray Jets(*)
252(3)
3.3.3.6 Toward A Further Unified Model of "Flares"(*)
255(2)
3.3.3.7 Summary and Remaining Questions
257(3)
3.3.4 Collisionless Conductivity(*)
260(23)
3.3.4.1 Collisionless Plasma and Memory Decay(*)
260(3)
3.3.4.2 Collisionless Tearing Instability(*)
263(20)
4 Fundamental Processes in Gravitational Objects
283(129)
4.1 Gravitational Contraction
283(33)
4.1.1 Jeans Instability
283(3)
4.1.2 Gravitational Contraction of Spherical Clouds
286(12)
4.1.2.1 Contraction of Spherical Clouds with Zero Pressure
286(4)
4.1.2.2 Contraction of Spherical Clouds with Finite Pressure
290(4)
4.1.2.3 Present Picture of Star Formation
294(4)
4.1.3 Contraction of Rotating Clouds
298(7)
4.1.3.1 Disk Formation and Runaway Collapse
298(3)
4.1.3.2 Equilibrium Solution of a Rotating Disk
301(2)
4.1.3.3 3D Simulation
303(2)
4.1.4 Contraction of Magnetic Clouds
305(11)
4.1.4.1 Criteria for Collapse of Magnetic Clouds
305(2)
4.1.4.2 Ambipolar Diffusion
307(2)
4.1.4.3 Magnetic Braking
309(3)
4.1.4.4 Quasistatic Contraction
312(2)
4.1.4.5 Dynamical Collapse
314(2)
4.2 Shear Flows
316(37)
4.2.1 Kelvin-Helmholtz Instability
317(6)
4.2.1.1 Growth Rate
319(1)
4.2.1.2 Richardson Number
320(1)
4.2.1.3 Local vs. Nonlocal Analysis
320(1)
4.2.1.4 Rotating Flow: Rayleigh's Criterion
321(2)
4.2.2 Magnetorotational Instability
323(6)
4.2.2.1 Motivation: Need for Anomalous Viscosity in Accretion Disks
323(2)
4.2.2.2 Critical Wavelength and Growth Rate
325(1)
4.2.2.3 Local Linear Stability Analysis for Vertical Magnetic Field
326(1)
4.2.2.4 Nonlinear Evolution for Vertical Magnetic Field(*)
327(2)
4.2.3 Magnetic Viscosity in Accretion Disks
329(24)
4.2.3.1 Nonlocal Linear Stability Analysis for General Magnetic Shearing Field
329(3)
4.2.3.2 Alfven Singularities and Eigenmodes(*)
332(3)
4.2.3.3 Effect of Resistivity
335(1)
4.2.3.4 Anomalous Resistivity and Magnetic Viscosity(*)
335(4)
4.2.3.5 3D Numerical Simulation of the Magneto-Rotational Instability(*)
339(3)
4.2.3.6 Effects of the Parker Instability(*)
342(2)
4.2.3.7 Effects of Large-Scale Vertical Field(*)
344(2)
4.2.3.8 Two States of Accretion Disks(*)
346(7)
4.3 Jet
353(59)
4.3.1 Observations of Astrophysical Jets
354(6)
4.3.1.1 AGN (Active Galactic Nuclei) Jets
354(3)
4.3.1.2 YSO (Young Stellar Objects) jets
357(1)
4.3.1.3 Jets ejected from XRB (X-ray Binaries) and CV (Cataclysmic Variables)
358(2)
4.3.2 Thermally Driven Wind/Jet
360(3)
4.3.3 Magnetically Driven Wind/Jet
363(11)
4.3.3.1 1D Steady Magnetically Driven (Centrifugal) Wind
364(5)
4.3.3.2 2D Steady Magnetically Driven Wind Theory(*)
369(5)
4.3.4 Nonsteady MHD Jets
374(16)
4.3.4.1 Magnetic Twist Jets Produced by the Interaction between a Rotating Disk and a Poloidal Magnetic Field
376(5)
4.3.4.2 Interaction of Magnetic Twist Jets with Interstellar Clouds(*)
381(1)
4.3.4.3 Relation to Magnetorotational (Balbus-Hawley) Instability
382(2)
4.3.4.4 Nonsteady MHD Jets from Thick Disks(*)
384(1)
4.3.4.5 Interaction between Stellar Magnetosphere and Accretion Disk Magnetic Field(*)
384(2)
4.3.4.6 Relation to Steady Wind/Jet and Remaining Questions
386(3)
4.3.4.7 Three-Dimensional Propagation of MHD Jets(*)
389(1)
4.3.5 High Energy Particle Acceleration
390(22)
4.3.5.1 XXX ray Bursts with Alfven Waves
390(1)
4.3.5.2 Explosive Magnetic Reconnection in a Disk and Associated Acceleration(*)
391(21)
5 Cosmological Plasma Astrophysics
412(54)
5.1 Cosmology and the Plasma Epoch
412(3)
5.1.1 Cosmological Constraints and Challenges
413(1)
5.1.2 Observations on Cosmological Magnetic Fields
414(1)
5.2 Intergalactic Plasma
415(19)
5.2.1 Cosmic X-ray Background Radiation
415(3)
5.2.2 Basic Physical Processes of Flux Tube Constriction
418(5)
5.2.3 Magnetically Constricted IGM Plasmas
423(1)
5.2.4 Heating of IGM Plasmas by Magnetic Fields(*)
424(2)
5.2.5 The Intergalactic Magnetic Dynamo(*)
426(8)
5.3 On the Origin of Cosmological Magnetic Fields
434(17)
5.3.1 The Fluctuation-Dissipation Theorem and Magnetic Fields(*)
436(3)
5.3.2 Frequency Spectrum of Magnetic Fields(*)
439(3)
5.3.3 Collisional Effects(*)
442(2)
5.3.4 Cosmological Implications
444(2)
5.3.5 Structure Formation
446(5)
5.4 Electroweak Plasmas(*)
451(4)
5.4.1 Neutrino Fluid and Electron Fluid(*)
451(1)
5.4.2 Primordial Instability(*)
452(3)
5.5 Extended Yang-Mills Structures(*)
455(11)
5.5.1 Introduction to Yang-Mills Vacua(*)
457(4)
5.5.2 Nontrivial (Non-zero Energy) Vacua(*)
461(2)
5.5.3 Perturbed Excitations(*)
463(3)
Sources 466(5)
Epilogue 471(3)
List of References 474(6)
Subject Index 480(7)
Credit 487

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