Plasma Charging Damage

Plasma Charging Damage

by Kin P. Cheung

Paperback(Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 2001)

$199.99
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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781447110620
Publisher: Springer London
Publication date: 08/30/2012
Edition description: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 2001
Pages: 346
Product dimensions: 6.10(w) x 9.25(h) x 0.03(d)

Table of Contents

1. Thin Gate-oxide Wear-out and Breakdown.- 1.1 The MOSFET.- 1.2 Tunneling Phenomena in Thin Oxide.- 1.2.1 Fowler-Nordheim (FN) Tunneling.- 1.2.2 Tunneling Current Oscillation.- 1.2.3 Direct Tunneling.- 1.3 Thin Oxide Breakdown Measurements.- 1.3.1 Median Time to Breakdown (TBD).- 1.3.2 Charge to Breakdown (QBD).- 1.3.3 Voltage to Breakdown (VBD).- 1.3.4 Soft Breakdown.- 1.3.5 Statistical Behavior of Oxide Breakdown.- 1.4 Gate-oxide Breakdown Models.- 1.4.1 Oxide-field Runaway Model.- 1.4.2 The Percolation Model.- 1.5 Trap Generation Model and Acceleration Factors.- 1.5.1 Voltage Acceleration Factor.- 1.5.2 Temperature Acceleration Factor.- 1.6 Defects, Traps and Latent Defects.- 1.6.1 Defects and Traps.- 1.6.2 Latent Defects.- References.- 2. Mechanism of Plasma Charging Damage I.- 2.1 Basic Plasma Characteristics.- 2.1.1 Quasi-neutral Character of Plasma.- 2.1.2 Particle Temperatures.- 2.1.3 Floating Potential and Plasma Sheath.- 2.1.4 Pre-sheath and “Bohm Criterion”.- 2.1.5 Independence of Sheath Potential.- 2.2 Charge Balance and Plasma Charging.- 2.2.1 Plasma Charging from Non-uniform Plasma.- 2.2.2 Effect of Injecting and Removing Electrons on Charge Balance.- 2.2.3 Asymmetric Response of Electron Current.- 2.3 Charging in the Presence of an Applied Bias.- 2.3.1 DC-bias from Applied AC Voltage.- 2.3.2 Relationship Between DC-bias and Charging Damage.- 2.3.3 Charge Balance with Large DC-bias.- 2.4 Fowler-Nordheim (FN) Tunneling and Charge Balance.- 2.4.1 Impact of FN Tunneling on Floating Potential Distribution.- 2.4.2 Bipolar Damage by Tunneling.- 2.4.3 Floating Substrate.- 2.4.4 Charge Balance versus the Charge Imbalance Model.- 2.5 Antenna Effect.- 2.5.1 Area Antenna Effect.- 2.5.2 Area Antenna Effect ¡ª Gate Injection Case.- 2.5.3 Perimeter Antenna Effect.- 2.6 Uniformity of Electron Temperature.- 2.7 Charging Damage by High-density Plasma.- References.- 3. Mechanism of Plasma Charging Damage II.- 3.1 Electron-shading Effect.- 3.1.1 Basics of Electron-Shading Effect.- 3.1.2 Analytical Model.- 3.1.3 Impact of RF Bias on Electron-shading Damage.- 3.1.4 Ion Repulsion Model of Electron-shading Damage.- 3.1.5 Electron-shading Effect in the Presence of FN Tunneling.- 3.1.6 The Effect of Electron Temperature on Electron-shading Damage.- 3.1.7 Negative Electron-shading Effect.- 3.1.8 Reduction of Electron-shading Damage Using Pulsed Plasma.- 3.1.9 Electron-shading Damage and Oxide Etching.- 3.1.10Electron-shading Damage and RF-sputter Clean Process.- 3.2 AC Charging Effect.- 3.2.1 Oscillating Oxide Field due to RF Bias.- 3.2.2 AC Charging from Pulsed Electron Flux.- 3.3 RF Bias Transient Charging Damage.- References.- 4. Mechanism of Plasma Charging Damage III.- 4.1 Plasma Charging Damage from Dielectric Deposition.- 4.2 Plasma Charging Damage from Magnetized Plasma.- 4.3 Plasma Charging Damage at the Transistor Channel’s Edge.- 4.4 Plasma Charging Damage in Very Short Range.- 4.5 Hidden Antenna Effects.- References.- 5. Charging Damage Measurement I ¡ª Determination of Plasma’s Ability to Cause Damage.- 5.1 Direct Plasma Property Measurement with Langmuir Probe.- 5.2 Stanford Plasma-On-Wafer Real-Time (SPORT) Probe.- 5.3 Using MNOS Device to Measure Plasma Charging Voltage.- 5.4 EEPROM and CHARM®.- 5.5 Common Problems with Methods that Measure Plasma Properties Directly.- 5.6 Rapid In-line Charge Sensing Methods.- 5.6.1 The Contact-Potential-Difference (CPD) Method.- 5.6.2 The Corona-Oxide-Semiconductor (COS) Method.- References.- 6. Charging Damage Measurement II ¡ª Direct Measurement of Damage.- 6.1 50A.- 6.3.2 Breakdown Test for Oxide < 50A.- 6.4 Wear-out Tests.- 6.4.1 Stress-Induced Leakage Current (SILC) Measurement.- 6.4.2 Flash Memory Retention Time Measurment.- 6.4.3 Initial Electron Trapping Slope Measurement.- 6.4.4 Transistor Parameter Shift Measurements.- 6.4.5 Hot-carrier and Fast Hot-carrier Stress Methods.- 6.4.6 Other Methods.- 6.4.6.1 Interface State Density Measurement 30.- 6.4.6.2Differential Amplifier Pair Mismatch Measurement 30.- 6.4.6.3Drain Current Noise Measurement 30.- References.- 7. Coping with Plasma Charging Damage.- 7.1 Impact of Plasma Charging Damage on Yield and Reliability.- 7.2 Fixing the Damaging Process.- 7.3 Use of Design Rules.- 7.4 Diode Protection.- 7.5 Failure Criteria Problem.- 7.6 Projecting the Yield Impact to Products.- 7.7 Projecting the Reliability Impact to Products.- 7.8 Ultra-thin Gate-oxide Issues.- 7.9 The Damage Measurement Problem for Ultra-thin Gate-oxide.- References.

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