In the late 19th and early 20th century, Pittsburgh, also known as "Steel City," was the largest steel-producing center in the United States. With its need for labor in the steel industry, Pittsburgh had an insatiable hunger for workers. Polish immigrants helped meet this demand. The city of Pittsburgh, as well as the surrounding area, was a heavily ethnic environment, and significant remnants of that heritage continue. Today, there is still a city neighborhood officially designated Polish Hill (Polski Gory). This book chronicles the immigration of Poles to Pittsburgh in several waves, beginning with those from German-occupied Poland, then Russian-occupied Poland, and finally, the largest group emigrating from that section of partitioned Poland under the control of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
About the Author
Stanley States, PhD, is a first-generation American whose father and grandparents came to Pittsburgh from Poland in the early 1900s. He has maintained his Polish heritage by attending summer programs at nearby Polish Alliance College as a teenager, dancing in Polish and Lithuanian folk groups, singing in a Polish church choir, belonging to Polish cultural organizations, and visiting his family in Poland. A true Pittsburgher, States had a 36-year career working as a chemist/microbiologist for the Pittsburgh Water and Sewer Authority.
Table of Contents
1 A Brief History of Poland 11
2 Migration from Poland to Pittsburgh 19
3 Immigrant Life in Polish Pittsburgh 31
4 Fraternal Societies 77
5 Churches, Synagogues, Schools, and an Orphanage 85
6 Newspapers and Other Periodicals 111
7 Pittsburgh Poles and the Struggle for an Independent Poland 115
8 Staying in Touch with the Old Country 125
9 Polish Customs and Traditions 133
10 Pittsburgh Polonia Today 145