Political Ideologies and the Democratic Ideal / Edition 2

Political Ideologies and the Democratic Ideal / Edition 2

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Political Ideologies and the Democratic Ideal / Edition 2

The new edition of this bestselling text continues to provide an accessible overview of the 21st century's major political ideologies, their origins, and their development. In addition to examining the major "isms"-liberalism, conservatism, socialism, and fascism-the book explores the history, structure, supporting arguments, and internal complexities of these and recently emerging ideologies.

The text outlines a framework defining each ideology in terms of the four functions ideologies perform-explanation, evaluation, orientation, and action-allowing students to compare, contrast, and analyze the various ideologies. In addition, the book also shows how each ideology interprets "democracy" (which the authors characterize as an ideal rather than an ideology) and "freedom." In examining the latter notion, the authors analyze each ideology's view of freedom in terms of agent, obstacle, and goal.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780065023565
Publisher: Addison-Wesley
Publication date: 01/01/1997
Edition description: Older Edition
Pages: 304

About the Author

Terence Ball received his Ph.D. from the University of California at Berkeley and is Professor of Political Science at Arizona State University (emeritus). He taught previously at the University of Minnesota and has held visiting professorships at Oxford University, Cambridge University, and the University of California, San Diego.

Richard Dagger earned his Ph.D. from the University of Minnesota and is now Professor of Political Science at the University of Richmond. He has taught at Arizona State University and Rhodes College, and has been a faculty fellow of the Center for Ethics and Public Affairs, Tulane University.

Daniel I. O'Neill holds a Ph.D. from the University of California at Los Angeles and is now Associate Professor of Political Science at the University of Florida.

Table of Contents

Preface     x
To the Reader     xiii
About the Authors     xiv
Ideology and Democracy
Ideology and Ideologies     1
A Working Definition of "Ideology"     4
Human Nature and Freedom     9
Human Nature     9
Freedom     10
Ideology and Revolution     12
Nationalism and Anarchism     14
Nationalism     14
Anarchism     15
Conclusion     16
Notes     16
For Further Reading     17
The Democratic Ideal     19
The Origins of Democracy     20
Democracy and Republic     24
The Republic and Mixed Government     24
Christianity and Democracy     25
Renaissance and Republicanism     27
The Atlantic Republican Tradition     30
The Return of Democracy     31
Seventeenth-Century Democrats     31
The United States as Democratic Republic     32
Tocqueville on Democracy     34
The Growth of Democracy     36
Democracy as an Ideal     37
Three Conceptions of Democracy     39
Conclusion     40
Notes     41
For Further Reading     42
The Development of Political Ideologies
Liberalism     45
Liberalism, Human Nature, and Freedom     46
Historical Background     47
Medieval Origins     47
The Protestant Reformation     50
Liberalism and Revolution     52
England     52
The American Revolution     57
The French Revolution     60
Liberalism and Capitalism     63
Liberalism in the Nineteenth Century     66
Utilitarianism     67
Liberalism Divided     71
Neoclassical Liberalism     72
Welfare Liberalism     73
Liberalism in the Twentieth Century     75
Historical Developments     75
Philosophical Considerations     77
The Libertarian Vision     80
Liberalism Today: Divisions and Differences     81
Conclusion     84
Liberalism as an Ideology     84
Liberalism and the Democratic Ideal     85
Coda: The Limits of Liberal Toleration     87
Notes     89
For Further Reading     91
Conservatism      93
The Politics of Imperfection     94
The Conservatism of Edmund Burke     95
Human Nature and Society     97
Freedom     97
Revolution and Reform     99
Burke on Government     99
Burke's Legacy     102
Conservatism in the Nineteenth Century     102
Conservatism and Reaction     102
Tory Democracy     105
Conservatism in the United States     106
Conservatism in the Twentieth Century     108
Conservatism Versus Mass Society     108
Leveling     109
Conservatives and Communism     110
Conservatism Today: A House Divided     112
Traditional Conservatism     112
Individualist Conservatism     113
Neoconservatism     114
The Religious Right     116
Conclusion     120
Conservatism as an Ideology     120
Conservatism and Democracy     121
Notes     122
For Further Reading     123
Socialism and Communism: More to Marx     125
Human Nature and Freedom     126
Socialism: The Precursors     128
Saint-Simon      130
Fourier     131
Owen     131
The Socialism of Karl Marx     132
The Young Marx     132
The Influence of Hegel     134
Marx's Theory of History     136
Marx's Critique of Capitalism     140
The Dialectic of Change     143
The Revolutionary Sequence     144
Notes     147
For Further Reading     149
Socialism and Communism After Marx     151
Marxism After Marx     152
Engels's Marxism     152
The Revisionists     157
Soviet Marxism-Leninism     161
Chinese Communism     170
Non-Marxist Socialism     174
Anarcho-Communism     175
Fabian Socialism     178
American Socialism     178
Socialism Today     181
Conclusion     185
Socialism as an Ideology     185
Socialism and the Democratic Ideal     187
Notes     187
For Further Reading     189
Fascism     191
Fascism: The Background     192
The Counter-Enlightenment     193
Nationalism      194
Elitism     196
Irrationalism     197
Fascism in Italy     198
Mussolini and Italian Fascism     199
Fascism in Theory and Practice     201
Fascism in Germany: Nazism     203
Hitler and Nazism     203
Nazism in Theory and Practice     206
Fascism Elsewhere     210
Fascism Today     212
Conclusion     217
Fascism as an Ideology     217
Fascism and the Democratic Ideal     217
Notes     218
For Further Reading     219
Political Ideologies Today and Tomorrow
Liberation Ideologies and the Politics of Identity     221
Liberation Ideologies: Common Characteristics     221
Black Liberation     223
Women's Liberation (Feminism)     229
Gay Liberation     233
Native People's Liberation (Indigenism)     236
Liberation Theology     239
Animal Liberation     241
Conclusion     246
Liberty, Identity, and Ideology     246
Liberation, Identity, and the Democratic Ideal     248
Notes     250
For Further Reading     253
"Green" Politics: Ecology as Ideology     257
The Green Critique of Other Ideologies     258
Toward an Ecological Ethic     260
Unresolved Differences     266
Conclusion     271
Ecology as Ideology     271
Ecology, Freedom, and the Democratic Ideal     271
Notes     272
For Further Reading     274
Radical Islamism     277
Islam: A Short History     277
Radical Islamism     281
Human Nature and Freedom     284
Conclusion     288
Radical Islamism as an Ideology     288
Radical Islamism and the Democratic Ideal     290
Notes     292
For Further Reading     293
Postscript: The Future of Ideology     295
Political Ideologies: Continuing Forces     296
Nationalism and Ideology     296
Religion and Ideology     298
Ideology and Public Policy     299
Ideology, the Environment, and Globalization     301
Political Ideologies and the Democratic Ideal     304
The End of Ideology?     306
Notes     309
For Further Reading     310
Glossary      311
Name Index     320
Subject Index     324

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