ISBN-10:
1138650056
ISBN-13:
9781138650053
Pub. Date:
09/08/2016
Publisher:
Taylor & Francis
Political Ideologies: Their Origins and Impact / Edition 12

Political Ideologies: Their Origins and Impact / Edition 12

by Leon P. Baradat, John A. Phillips

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Overview

Political Ideologies: Their Origins and Impact / Edition 12

Leon Baradat is professor emeritus at MiraCosta College in Oceanside, California, where he received the Teacher of the Year award in 1990. In addition to Political Ideologies: Their Origins and Impact, he also wrote Soviet Political Society and Understanding American Democracy, as well as numerous articles and essays on the topic of politics and education. He served as President of the Academic Senate for California Community Colleges, Consultant on Higher Education to the California State Legislature, President of the Palomar Community College Board of Trustees in California, President of the Faculty Association for California Community Colleges, President of the Western Association of Community and Junior Colleges, and Chair of the Board for the Western Association of Schools and Colleges.

Additionally, he has received numerous honors for his teaching and leadership, including the prestigious Hayward Award for Excellence in Education from the Community College Board of Governors; the National Institute for Staff and Organizational Development (NISOD) Excellence Award from the University of Texas; induction into the Hall of Fame at the College of Sequoias; and the American Community College Trustees Faculty Award for the Pacific Region. He continues to write and to teach periodically.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781138650053
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Publication date: 09/08/2016
Edition description: Revised
Pages: 396
Sales rank: 590,778
Product dimensions: 6.00(w) x 9.00(h) x (d)

About the Author

Leon P. Baradat is Professor Emeritus of Political Science at MiraCosta College.

John A. Phillips is Professor of Political Science at MiraCosta College.

Read an Excerpt

PREFACE:

Preface

Since the first edition of this book, we have witnessed many changes in the tides of world political turmoil. The Cold War ended and much of the communist world collapsed. People were hopeful momentarily that the political climate would grow more temperate and tensions relax. However, although the frightening possibility of a nuclear confrontation between the superpowers has diminished, we still find ourselves confronted with a threatening environment. The Middle East continues to fester; religious fundamentalism engenders violence; political terrorism continues to threaten disruption; racism divides peoples against themselves; nationalism and neo-fascism emerge again, creating havoc and motivating paranoid Americans to join militant citizen militias in efforts to protect themselves from imagined adversity; famine emaciates millions in the developing world; air pollution is almost inescapable; water everywhere is increasingly adulterated; the earth's protective layer of ozone is rapidly disintegrating; the globe is warming in response to the chemicals released into the atmosphere; and the press of the world's population on available food supplies and other resources is now dangerously acute.

These problems, and many others demanding solutions, confront us and our political leaders. To resolve our difficulties, we realize that we must work together with other people in the world, since many of our problems traverse national boundaries and exceed the capacity of single states to successfully address them. In order to cooperate in the salvation of humankind, we must learn to deal with people who have values, biases, views, and ideas thatare different from our own. Hence, we must confront a number of basic questions if we hope to successfully meet the challenges of the first few years of the twenty-first century. What, for example, are the fundamental concepts in modern politics? What ideas serve as the foundation of our political system? How does our system differ from others? What is socialism, and how does it relate to democracy and to communism? Is fascism moribund, or does it survive, awaiting another chance to take hold in a society confused and disoriented by the complexities of modern life? Why don't people of the world see things our way? How do they view the world, and why do they value the things they do? What are their assumptions and objectives? And, perhaps most important, What do 1 believe and how do my views relate to the politics of my time? These and hundreds of other questions must be addressed if we are to face intelligently the political controversies that loom before us.

Traditionally, the American people have been impatient with theoretical concepts. Finding such notions abstract and uninteresting, they prefer more tangible, practical approaches to politics. Moreover, the American political tack has usually been unilateral. We have either tried to ignore the rest of the world—as in much of the early part of this century—or we have expected the world to conform to our attitudes and policies—as has been the case since World War II. But such a narrow view is no longer viable—if indeed it ever was. The United States must face the fact that it is only one player, albeit an important one, in global politics, and we must learn to cooperate with the rest of the world in the resolution of common problems. To do so, we must understand the other peoples of the world. We must comprehend their needs, their ideals, their values, their views. In this endeavor, there can be no better place to start than by coming to appreciate their political ideologies. A clear understanding of the current ideologies in the world is essential if one is to grasp the political realities of our time.

A NOTE TO THE STUDENT

I think of myself as a teacher, not an author. This book, therefore, is written as a vehicle for teaching some of the world's great ideas, and as such it reaches students whom the author will probably never meet and thus influences the lives of strangers, if only slightly. With pedagogy in mind, several features have been incorporated in this book that will help the reader learn its contents more easily.

Each chapter is preceded by a preview of the material to be covered in that chapter. The preview is designed to alert students to the principal ideas developed in the text that follows. Thus you will find that, equipped with this overview, the details in the chapter become more meaningful. It may be wise to reread the previews after you finish each chapter. That way you can check your comprehension of the material. At the end of each chapter, questions are provided that are designed to stimulate thought and discussion about the major themes in the chapter.

I have also included at the end of the chapters a brief bibliography of books that can be used in further pursuit of the subject. These lists are certainly not exhaustive of the subjects they address, but they can be used as jumping-off places for more detailed inquiry into the subject.

The text also includes italicized words and phrases. When encountering these words, take special note of them; it is my way of saying that material is particularly important. The glossary and the index at the end of the book should also be especially useful. In addition, the names and concepts appearing in boldface in the text can be found among the items in the glossary, and you should pay close attention to them as well.

As a final note to the reader, I would like to say just a few words about general education requirements. Responding to economic and social pressures, students today are understandably anxious to complete their studies so that they can begin to make a living. Courses that do not immediately translate into dollars are often viewed by students as superfluous impositions on their time. The course for which you are reading this text may be one of those offerings. Yet, there is more to life than materialism, and we must learn to appreciate and enjoy what we are and who we are while we make a living. In fact, it is likely that we will make a better living, or at least live better, if we appreciate and understand the world in which we live.

Education is the custodian of civilization. Its function is to transmit the knowledge of our civilization to each succeeding generation. General education courses are the principal vehicle by which this function is executed at the college level. They offer you the priceless treasure of society's wisdom. Immerse yourself in them, savor them, absorb them, enjoy them. Let general education courses expose you to the wonders of our world, expanding your vision and deepening your appreciation of life so that, as Stephen Bailey wrote, "Later in life when you knock on yourself, someone answers."

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

While any inaccuracies in this book are completely my own responsibility, several people have made such substantial contributions to this work that I take pleasure in mentioning them here. My deepest gratitude belongs to my wife, Elaine. Her unselfish help and her unfailing support over the years have been instrumental to the book's success. I am also indebted to our sons Leon and René who, in the early editions of the book, sacrificed time we might have spent together, so that the book could be written.

For the lucidity the first edition enjoyed, all credit and many thanks go to Professor Julie Hatoff. Spending untold hours reviewing the manuscript, suggesting improvements, and correcting errors, Professor Hatoff was of invaluable assistance. Her conscientious attention to my misplaced modifiers, arbitrary punctuation, and eccentric spelling was very helpful, and I am most grateful to her. I am also very grateful to Professor Richard Leitch of Gustavus Adolphus College and to my colleague and friend David Ballard for their help on this edition. Additionally, I am indebted to the staff at the MiraCosta College Learning Resource Center, including Janet Megill, Patricia McClure, and Marion Forester. Their friendly and helpful attitude makes my work much easier. I would also like to thank Beth Ann Gillett of Prentice Hall. My thanks also to the reviewers, Andrew L. Aoki, Augsburg College; Lyman H. Heine, Fresno State University; John Gerring, Boston University; Michael Hoover, Seminole Community College; Vendulka Kubalkova, University of Miami; Arnold J. Oliver, Heidelberg College; R. Mark Tiller, Houston Community College; and Bruce Tuttle, Fresno State University, for their many helpful suggestions.

Besides those who did so much to make this book a reality, I would like to take this opportunity to express my gratitude to the people of California for providing an excellent and free public education system to its youth. Were it not for the opportunity to attend state-supported schools and colleges, I would almost surely not have received an education. In addition, I would like to single out three teachers who have had particular influence on my professional life and whose pedagogical and scholarly examples have been important inspirations. To N. B. (Tad) Martin, formerly professor of history at the College of the Sequoias, who has a grasp of history and a teaching ability worthy of emulation, my sincere appreciation. To Karl A. Svenson, professor of political science at Fresno State University, whose lectures were memorable and whose advice was timely and sound, my heartfelt thanks. Finally, and most important, to David H. Provost, professor of political science at Fresno State University, my lasting gratitude for the help, encouragement, scholastic training, and friendship he so abundantly extended. His example has been particularly meaningful to me.

Leon P. Baradat

Table of Contents

Preface     xi
A Note to the Student     xii
Acknowledgments     xiii
Ideology     1
Preview     1
The Development of Ideology     1
The Source of Ideology     2
Ideology Defined     6
The Origin of the Term     6
Contemporary Definitions     7
Ideology and Philosophy     10
Questions for Discussion     11
Suggestions for Further Reading     11
The Spectrum of Political Attitudes     13
Preview     13
Understanding the Spectrum     14
Change, or Policy Options     14
Radical     18
Liberal     20
Moderate     22
Conservative     22
Reactionary     28
Values, or Personal Philosophy     30
Motivation     34
The Changing Spectrum     35
Specific Policies     36
Foreign Policy     37
Domestic Policy     38
Questions for Discussion     42
Suggestions for Further Reading     42
Nationalism     44
Preview     44
TheImportance of Nationalism     45
Nation and State     45
Theories of the Origin of the State     49
The History of Nationalism     54
The Theory of Nationalism     57
Questions for Discussion     62
Suggestions for Further Reading     62
The Evolution of Democratic Theory     64
Preview     64
The Meaning of Democracy     65
The Early History of Democracy     66
The Social Contract     67
Later Social Contract Philosophers     68
Thomas Hobbes     69
John Locke     70
Jean Jacques Rousseau     77
Questions for Discussion     81
Suggestions for Further Reading     81
Liberal Democracy, Capitalism, and Beyond     83
Preview     83
Capitalism     84
Adam Smith     84
Neoclassical Liberal Democratic Theory     90
Edmund Burke     90
James Madison     93
Jefferson's Alternative     98
The Emergence of Democratic Socialism     101
Utilitarianism and Positivist Law     102
Democratic Socialism      103
Questions for Discussion     107
Suggestions for Further Reading     108
The Liberal Democratic Process     110
Preview     110
Processes of Democracy     111
Democracy and the Legislative Process     111
Elite Theorism     116
Systems of Government     118
The American System     118
The British System     121
Elections     125
Electoral Districts     125
Political Party Structures     128
Representation     130
Theories of Representation     130
Some Criticisms of Democracy     131
Questions for Discussion     132
Suggestions for Further Reading     133
Anarchism     134
Preview     134
Development of Anarchism     134
Definition of Anarchism     135
Particular Theories of Anarchism     139
The Pacifists     139
The Revolutionaries     143
Individualist Anarchists     147
Militant Civilian Militias     149
Questions for Discussion     151
Suggestions for Further Reading     151
Socialist Theory     152
Preview     152
The Development of Socialism     153
Communism and Socialism     154
The Meaning of Socialism     155
Ownership of Production     155
The Welfare State     157
The Socialist Intent     159
The History of Socialism     160
From the French Revolution to Marx     160
Marxism     165
Capitalist Development     167
The Basic Principles of Marxism     168
Marxist Sociological Theory     169
Marxist Historical Theory     172
Marxist Economic Theory     176
Marxist Theory of Revolution     179
The Marxist Political System     181
Internationalism     182
Questions for Discussion     182
Suggestions for Further Reading     183
Applied Socialism     184
Preview     184
Socialism after Marx     185
Orthodox Marxism     185
Revisionism     185
Marxism-Leninism     187
The Soviet Union and Russia     192
Lenin's and Stalin's Policies     192
Soviet Atrophy      195
China     197
The Belligerent Stage of the Revolution     197
The Political Stage of the Revolution     199
The Principles of Maoism     205
Cuba     209
The Cuban Revolution     209
Fidelismo     216
The Re-emergence of Socialism     218
Questions for Discussion     221
Suggestions for Further Reading     221
Fascism and National Socialism     223
Preview     223
The Failure of Democracy and Capitalism     224
The Development of Fascism and National Socialism     224
Mussolini     225
Hitler     228
Fascist and Nazi Ideologies     230
Irrationalism     231
Racism     235
Totalitarianism     239
Elitism     241
The Corporate State     242
Imperialism     243
Militarism     245
Contemporary Fascist and Neo-Nazi Movements     246
Right-Wing Extremism in the United States     249
Questions for Discussion     257
Suggestions for Further Reading     257
Ideologies in the Developing World      259
Preview     259
Developing World Defined     260
Politics of the Developing World     261
Economics of the Developing World     269
Developing World Democracies and Dictatorships     277
Terrorism     279
Guided Democracies     281
Questions for Discussion     282
Suggestions for Further Reading     283
Feminism and Environmentalism     284
Preview     284
Feminism     285
Sexism Is Endemic     286
The History of Feminism     291
Feminist Thought     294
Environmentalism     296
The Environmentalists     304
Questions for Discussion     308
Suggestions for Further Reading     308
Glossary     311
Credits     323
Index     324

Preface

PREFACE:

Preface

Since the first edition of this book, we have witnessed many changes in the tides of world political turmoil. The Cold War ended and much of the communist world collapsed. People were hopeful momentarily that the political climate would grow more temperate and tensions relax. However, although the frightening possibility of a nuclear confrontation between the superpowers has diminished, we still find ourselves confronted with a threatening environment. The Middle East continues to fester; religious fundamentalism engenders violence; political terrorism continues to threaten disruption; racism divides peoples against themselves; nationalism and neo-fascism emerge again, creating havoc and motivating paranoid Americans to join militant citizen militias in efforts to protect themselves from imagined adversity; famine emaciates millions in the developing world; air pollution is almost inescapable; water everywhere is increasingly adulterated; the earth's protective layer of ozone is rapidly disintegrating; the globe is warming in response to the chemicals released into the atmosphere; and the press of the world's population on available food supplies and other resources is now dangerously acute.

These problems, and many others demanding solutions, confront us and our political leaders. To resolve our difficulties, we realize that we must work together with other people in the world, since many of our problems traverse national boundaries and exceed the capacity of single states to successfully address them. In order to cooperate in the salvation of humankind, we must learn to deal with people who have values, biases, views, and ideasthatare different from our own. Hence, we must confront a number of basic questions if we hope to successfully meet the challenges of the first few years of the twenty-first century. What, for example, are the fundamental concepts in modern politics? What ideas serve as the foundation of our political system? How does our system differ from others? What is socialism, and how does it relate to democracy and to communism? Is fascism moribund, or does it survive, awaiting another chance to take hold in a society confused and disoriented by the complexities of modern life? Why don't people of the world see things our way? How do they view the world, and why do they value the things they do? What are their assumptions and objectives? And, perhaps most important, What do 1 believe and how do my views relate to the politics of my time? These and hundreds of other questions must be addressed if we are to face intelligently the political controversies that loom before us.

Traditionally, the American people have been impatient with theoretical concepts. Finding such notions abstract and uninteresting, they prefer more tangible, practical approaches to politics. Moreover, the American political tack has usually been unilateral. We have either tried to ignore the rest of the world—as in much of the early part of this century—or we have expected the world to conform to our attitudes and policies—as has been the case since World War II. But such a narrow view is no longer viable—if indeed it ever was. The United States must face the fact that it is only one player, albeit an important one, in global politics, and we must learn to cooperate with the rest of the world in the resolution of common problems. To do so, we must understand the other peoples of the world. We must comprehend their needs, their ideals, their values, their views. In this endeavor, there can be no better place to start than by coming to appreciate their political ideologies. A clear understanding of the current ideologies in the world is essential if one is to grasp the political realities of our time.

A NOTE TO THE STUDENT

I think of myself as a teacher, not an author. This book, therefore, is written as a vehicle for teaching some of the world's great ideas, and as such it reaches students whom the author will probably never meet and thus influences the lives of strangers, if only slightly. With pedagogy in mind, several features have been incorporated in this book that will help the reader learn its contents more easily.

Each chapter is preceded by a preview of the material to be covered in that chapter. The preview is designed to alert students to the principal ideas developed in the text that follows. Thus you will find that, equipped with this overview, the details in the chapter become more meaningful. It may be wise to reread the previews after you finish each chapter. That way you can check your comprehension of the material. At the end of each chapter, questions are provided that are designed to stimulate thought and discussion about the major themes in the chapter.

I have also included at the end of the chapters a brief bibliography of books that can be used in further pursuit of the subject. These lists are certainly not exhaustive of the subjects they address, but they can be used as jumping-off places for more detailed inquiry into the subject.

The text also includes italicized words and phrases. When encountering these words, take special note of them; it is my way of saying that material is particularly important. The glossary and the index at the end of the book should also be especially useful. In addition, the names and concepts appearing in boldface in the text can be found among the items in the glossary, and you should pay close attention to them as well.

As a final note to the reader, I would like to say just a few words about general education requirements. Responding to economic and social pressures, students today are understandably anxious to complete their studies so that they can begin to make a living. Courses that do not immediately translate into dollars are often viewed by students as superfluous impositions on their time. The course for which you are reading this text may be one of those offerings. Yet, there is more to life than materialism, and we must learn to appreciate and enjoy what we are and who we are while we make a living. In fact, it is likely that we will make a better living, or at least live better, if we appreciate and understand the world in which we live.

Education is the custodian of civilization. Its function is to transmit the knowledge of our civilization to each succeeding generation. General education courses are the principal vehicle by which this function is executed at the college level. They offer you the priceless treasure of society's wisdom. Immerse yourself in them, savor them, absorb them, enjoy them. Let general education courses expose you to the wonders of our world, expanding your vision and deepening your appreciation of life so that, as Stephen Bailey wrote, "Later in life when you knock on yourself, someone answers."

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

While any inaccuracies in this book are completely my own responsibility, several people have made such substantial contributions to this work that I take pleasure in mentioning them here. My deepest gratitude belongs to my wife, Elaine. Her unselfish help and her unfailing support over the years have been instrumental to the book's success. I am also indebted to our sons Leon and René who, in the early editions of the book, sacrificed time we might have spent together, so that the book could be written.

For the lucidity the first edition enjoyed, all credit and many thanks go to Professor Julie Hatoff. Spending untold hours reviewing the manuscript, suggesting improvements, and correcting errors, Professor Hatoff was of invaluable assistance. Her conscientious attention to my misplaced modifiers, arbitrary punctuation, and eccentric spelling was very helpful, and I am most grateful to her. I am also very grateful to Professor Richard Leitch of Gustavus Adolphus College and to my colleague and friend David Ballard for their help on this edition. Additionally, I am indebted to the staff at the MiraCosta College Learning Resource Center, including Janet Megill, Patricia McClure, and Marion Forester. Their friendly and helpful attitude makes my work much easier. I would also like to thank Beth Ann Gillett of Prentice Hall. My thanks also to the reviewers, Andrew L. Aoki, Augsburg College; Lyman H. Heine, Fresno State University; John Gerring, Boston University; Michael Hoover, Seminole Community College; Vendulka Kubalkova, University of Miami; Arnold J. Oliver, Heidelberg College; R. Mark Tiller, Houston Community College; and Bruce Tuttle, Fresno State University, for their many helpful suggestions.

Besides those who did so much to make this book a reality, I would like to take this opportunity to express my gratitude to the people of California for providing an excellent and free public education system to its youth. Were it not for the opportunity to attend state-supported schools and colleges, I would almost surely not have received an education. In addition, I would like to single out three teachers who have had particular influence on my professional life and whose pedagogical and scholarly examples have been important inspirations. To N. B. (Tad) Martin, formerly professor of history at the College of the Sequoias, who has a grasp of history and a teaching ability worthy of emulation, my sincere appreciation. To Karl A. Svenson, professor of political science at Fresno State University, whose lectures were memorable and whose advice was timely and sound, my heartfelt thanks. Finally, and most important, to David H. Provost, professor of political science at Fresno State University, my lasting gratitude for the help, encouragement, scholastic training, and friendship he so abundantly extended. His example has been particularly meaningful to me.

Leon P. Baradat

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