Political Pamphlets and Sermons from Wales 1790-1806

Political Pamphlets and Sermons from Wales 1790-1806

by Marion Loffler

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ISBN-13: 9781783161003
Publisher: University of Wales Press
Publication date: 12/15/2014
Series: University of Wales Press - Wales and the French Revolution Series
Pages: 320
Product dimensions: 6.10(w) x 9.20(h) x 1.10(d)

About the Author

Marion Löffler is a research fellow at the University of Wales Centre for Advanced Welsh and Celtic Studies. She is the author of The Literary and Historical Legacy of Iolo Morganwg, 1826–1926, also published by the University of Wales Press.

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Political Pamphlets and Sermons from Wales 1790â"1806


By Marion Löffler, Bethan Jenkins

University of Wales Press

Copyright © 2014 Marion Löffler
All rights reserved.
ISBN: 978-1-78316-102-7


CHAPTER 1

CYNGOR GAMALIEL; NEU Ddyledswydd Brydain: MEWN PREGETH AR DDYDD YMPRYD, CHWEFROR 28, 1794


[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

[Pa] ham y terfysga'r cenhedloedd, ac y myfyria'r bobloedd beth ofer?

DAFYDD.


(CAERFYRDDIN: ARGRAPHWYD GAN I. ROSS, YN HEOL- AWST, 1794.)


[PRIS DWY GEINIOG]


ACTAU V. 38, 39.

Ac yr awr hon meddaf i chwi, ciliwch oddi wrth y dynion hyn, a gadewch iddynt: o blegid os o ddynion y mae'r cyngor hwn neu'r weithred hon, fe a ddiddymmir: Eithr os o Dduw y mae, ni ellwch chwi ei diddymmu, rhag eich cael yn ymladd yn erbyn Duw.


Mae'r cyfnewidiad ac a ddigwyddodd yn ddiweddar yn Ffraingc wedi creu cynnwrf mawr trwy holl Ewrop. Wrth weled 25 Miliwn ar yr un waith yn ysgwyd ymaith haiarnedd iau caethiwed a chyhoeddi eu hunain yn bobl ruddion, fe synnodd llawer. Rhai a gyd-lawenychasant a hwynt, eraill a frawychasant yn ddirfawr, ac 'nawr mae rhan fwyaf o bwerau Ewrop yn rhyfela yn erbyn y Ffrangcod. Ond mae pob dyn synhwyrol ac sydd yn ystyriaid chwerder rhyfel a melusdra heddwch yn barod i ddwedyd gyd a Gamaliel yn y testyn, Ciliwch oddi wrth y dynion hyn a gadewch iddynt: o blegid os o ddynion y mae y cyngor hwn neu'r weithred hon, fe a ddiddymmir: Eithr os o Dduw y mae, ni ellwch chwi ei diddymmu, rhag eich cael yn ymladd yn erbyn Duw. Fel ac yr ydym wedi cael gorchymmyn brenhinol i gadw y dydd hwn yn ddydd o ympryd a gweddi; mi gaf fabwsiadu'r geiriau at yr achos presennol, a dangos trwy amryw resymmau mae gwell yw i'r deyrnas hon wneuthur heddwch a Ffraingc. Mae gwell fyddai i'r brenin, arglwyddi a chyffredin gyduno i wneuthur cyngor Gamaliel yn y testyn.

1. Mae amgylchiad trysorau'r deyrnas hon yn galw yn uchel am heddwch. Nid yw Brydain yn y fath gyflwr llwyddianus ac y mae llawer yn meddwl ei bod hi. Mae dyled y goron wedi cynnyddu i'r fath râdd fel ac y mae yn amhosibl iddo gynhyddi llawer rhagor heb ddestrywio'r deyrnas. Yn nechreuad rhyfel America 'doedd dyled y goron ond cant a deg ar hugain o filiwnau o bunnau; pan ddechreuwyd rhyfela a Ffraingc 'roedd yn 250 o filiwnau; Ond er pan ddechreuwyd y rhyfel hwn y mae dyled y goron wedi cynnyddu yn ddirfawr, ac os parha y rhyfel flwyddyn yn rhagor, fe red y dyled i 300 miliwn. Mae'r deiliaid tlodion yn gwargrymmu dan y trethi eusus, a llawer yn barod i roi fynu eu tiroedd os chwanegir rhagor o drethi, fel mae rhaid gwneuthur os parha y rhyfel. 'Nawr a ydyw yn ddoethineb i deyrnas o dan y fath bwn o ddyled, o dan y fath amgylchiadau a hyn i fyned i ryfel? Mae yn ddiammau mae heddwch yw'r peth goreu dan y cyfryw amgylchiadau. O blegid os parha y rhyfel fe gynhydda'r dyled, a'r canlyniad a fydd i'r deyrnas dorri: fe â'r deyrnas yn Fankrupt, a pheth fydd canlyniad hynny? Och! fe â y llywodraeth sydd yn Mhrydain-fawr yn gandryll, a phob peth yn bendramwnwgl. Fe ddifethir cannoedd o deuluoedd ac sydd 'nawr yn nofio mewn cyfoeth a llawnder, ac yn byw yn gysurus ar log yr arian maent wedi roddi yn fenthyg i'r goron. Am hynny gweddiwn am heddwch rhag ofn i ni brofi y pethau annymunol hyn.

2. Mae galarus gyflwr ein gweithiau a'n masnach yn bresennol yn galw yn groch am heddwch. Ar lwyddiant ein Marsiandaeth a'n gweithiau cartrefol mae gogoniant Brydain-fawr yn ymddibennu. Beth yw'r achos fod Brydain yn fwy cyfoethog a derchafedig nac un genedl arall, ond fod mwy o annogaeth i'r celfyddydau yn ein plith, ac fod gennym fwy o weithiau cartrefol a mwy o fasnach ar led. Mae gennym longau yn mordwyo i eithafoedd byd, ac yn marsiando (mron) a phob cenedl dan y nef. Y rhai hyn sydd yn cario ein gweithiau ar led, ac yn dwyn yn ol drysorau gwerthfawr i gyfoethogi trigolion ynys Brydain. Ond er dechrauad y rhyfel presennol rhyfedd y tro mae pethau wedi gymmeryd, fe dybygid fod y rhyfel hwn wedi rhoi clwyf marwol i'n gweithiau cartrefol, a'n masnach a chenhedlaethau eraill. Mae'r celfyddydwyr yn methu gwerthu eu gweithiau, yn ganlynol maent yn anfon ymaith eu gweithwyr; pa rai wedi methu cael gwaith sydd ynghyd a'u gwragedd a'u plant naill a[i'n] myned ar y plwyfau neu i ben y ffordd fawr. Mae dros 22 fil o'r cyfryw eusus wedi myned i'r fyddin i ymladd a'r gelynion, a'u teuluoedd gweinion yn Manchester, Birmingham a Sheffield ac amrywiol o fannau eraill yn y deyrnas yn dioddef yn dost o blegid y rhyfel. Mae yn beth aruthr i feddwl fod 71 o fancau wedi stopio, a 1296 wedi myned yn fancrupts y flwyddyn ddiweddaf; a hyn mewn mesyr mawr os nid yn gwbl mewn canlyniad i'r rhyfel presennol. Ac os dyma fel yr â pethau yn y blaen fe dderfydd masnach rhwng dinasyddion a'u gilydd ac fe ddaw bawb i dlodi. Mae ein llongau yn cael eu cymmeryd yn aml iawn, a'r marsiandwyr yn ofni danfon eu meddiannau dros foroedd am fod y Ffrangcod mor aml oddiamgylch ein terfynau. Mae'n amhosibl i bethau fyned yn y blaen fel hyn yn hir, o blegid oni wneir heddwch yn fuan, fe aiff y wlad hon mor dlotted a'r tlota yn Ewrop. Mae'r gweithiwr tlawd ac eisiau bara arno, o blegid nad oes ganddo waith. Mae ei feistr yn ffeulu rhoi gwaith iddo druan gwr, am na chaiff werth ar ei foddion: ac ni chair neb i brynu'r moddion o blegid mae yn rhy beryglus yn amser rhyfel i'w danfon i wledydd tra-môr. Felly chwi welwch fod pob gradd yn dioddef o blegid y rhyfel presennol, ac oni wneur heddwch yn fuan fe deimlir rhagor o galedi etto. Mae'r ergid a roddodd y rhyfel hwn i'n gweithiau wedi gyrru llawer o'n gweithwyr mwyaf cywrain a chyfoethog i America. Maent yno yn cael llonyddwch ac annogaeth mawr i gario yn y blaen eu hamrywiol gelfyddydau a'u mhasnach. Maent 'nawr wedi rhoi ar drôd bob gwaith yn America ac oedd yn cael ei gario yn y blaen ymma, yr hyn a isela eu mharchnad hwy fel na bo achos iddynt brynu pethau o Loegr. Ac oni fydd hyn yn golled mawr i'r deyrnas hon? i bwy farchnad yr ant a'i gweithiau mwyach?

3. Mae'r dîfrod alaethus ac sydd yn cyd-fyned a rhyfel, yn gwaeddi yn uchel ar drîgolion ynys Brydain i adael llonydd i'r Ffrangcod. — — 'Rwyf yn meddwl mae'r fflangell waethaf ar gefn teyrnas yw rhyfel. Mae dros 500 mil wedi cael eu lladd yn y rhyfel hwn yn barod, a'i bychan yw hyn yn ein golwg! A ydyw gwaed ein cyd-greaduriaid yn beth mor ddi-sylw gennym? 'Roedd gan y rhan fwyaf o'r rhai hyn ysgatfydd dadau a mammau, gwragedd a phlant buchain mor anwyl a neb dynion eraill. Ac y mae llawer o'u cyfeillion a'u perth'nasau mewn canlyniad i hyn wedi cael eu gwneud yn amddifad ac yn ddiymgeledd i dreulio eu dyddiau mewn gofyd, galar a thristwch. Yr ydym yn llawenhau yn ddirfawr wrth glywed fod ein byddinoedd yn llwyddo, fod dinasoedd yn cael eu anrheithio a'u cymmeryd, a bod ein gelynion yn cael eu rhifo wrth y cannoedd a'r miloedd i'r cleddyf, heb ystyried ochneidiau'r gweddwon, llef yr amddifad, a cholled y meddiannydd. Mae dinasoedd gwychion yn cael eu troi yn garneddau dinystriol, meusydd ffrwythlon yn feusydd gwaed; gwledydd helaeth yn cael eu anrheithio a'i goresgyn a newyn, noethni a phob rhyw drueni arall. Pwy gan hynny ag sydd yn ystyriaid y difrod mae rhyfel yn ei wneuthur na weddia am heddwch. O'r trueni fod dyn ac a greuwyd ar ddelw Duw yn cymmeryd y fath hoffder i [']speilio a thywallt gwaed ei gymmydog! Gartref fe a gospir gwr ac a 'speilio ei gymmydog o'i arian neu ddodrefn neu lyniaeth; ond pan elo y gwr hwn i ryfel, rhy fynych y dioddefir iddo i ladd a llosgi ffordd y cerddo; i ddistrywio gwyr, gwragedd, a phlant, ac i rannu'r ysbail rhwng ei gyfeillion. A phan dêl adref yr ydys yn ei dderchafu i'r cymmylau fel cawr sydd yn haeddu mawr glod am ei greulondeb.

4. Mae'r ychydig lwyddiant a gafodd ein byddinoedd y flwyddyn ddiweddaf yn galw arnom hefyd i wneuthur cyngor Gamaliel yn y testyn. Fe gymmerwyd rhai dinasoedd gwir yw, trwy lawer o ofyd, traul, a thywallt gwaed; ond beth am hynny? oni ennillodd y gelynion y rhan fwyaf o honynt yn eu hôl? ac ar yr ystyriaeth hon nid yw ein gelynion nemmawr gwaeth 'nawr na phan y dechreuasant ryfela. A pheth pe bae y pwerau cyssylltedig yn gorchfygu Ffraingc? A fyddai hyn o ddim mantais i Frydain? Dim yn y byd yn rhagor na chwanegu y trethi i'r diben i gynnal byddin sefydlog yn Ffraingc, i gadw y trigolion mewn ufudddod anfoddiog a dychryn. Fe ddywedir wrthym y newynwn ni y Ffrangcod maes o law, am nad oes ganddynt bobl i lafurio'r ddaear, maent oll yn filwyr. Pwy bynnag sydd yn dywedyd hyn sydd yn hollol anwybodus o ansawdd y wlad ac o rifedi ei thrigolion. Fe wyr pob haneswr fod Ffraingc yn wlad ffrwythlon iawn, a bod yno 25 miliwn o drigolion. 'Does ganddynt ddim cwbl 5 miliwn dan arfau, ac mae yn beth rhyfedd os nad oes digon o hwsmonwyr ymhlith yr 20 miliwn sydd 'nôl i lafurio'r ddaear. Y gwir ydyw fod ganddynt gymmaint o lyniaeth 'nawr a fu ganddynt oll, a chan eu bod yn hytrach yn ymgryfhau ac yn llwyddo, ni ddylem wneuthur heddwch mewn amser rhag myned i amgylchiad na ellir dim dyfod o hono. Maent yn dywedyd yn rhygil yn Ffraingc eu bod yn bwriadu goresgyn y wlad hon, a bod ganddynt dros 60 mil o wyr yn barod. Os gwir yw hyn goreu pan gyntaf cael heddwch. Mae'n milwyr goreu ni wedi myned allan o'r deyrnas, fel nad oes gennym ond ychydig i amddiffyn ein terfynau; beth gan hynny a wnawn dan yr amgylchiadau galarus hyn? Gweddiwn i'r Arglwydd faddeu ein pechodau, ac amddiffyn ein terfynau. — —


GAMALIEL'S COUNSEL; OR Britain's Duty: IN A SERMON ON THE FAST-DAY, FEBRUARY 28, 1794


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Why do the heathen rage, and the people imagine a vain thing? DAVID.

(CARMARTHEN: PRINTED BY I. ROSS, IN HEOL-AWST, 1794.)


[PRICE TWO PENCE]


ACTS V. 38, 39.

And now I say unto you, Refrain from these men, and let them alone: for if this counsel or this work be of men, it will come to nought: But if it be of God, ye cannot overthrow it; lest haply ye be found even to fight against God.


The revolution which happened recently in France has created a great commotion throughout Europe. At the sight of 25 Million people at once shaking off the iron yoke of slavery and pronouncing themselves free people, many were astonished. Some rejoiced with them, others were greatly alarmed, and now the majority of Europe's powers are at war against the French. But every sensible man who contemplates the bitterness of war and the sweetness of peace is ready to say along with Gamaliel in the text, Refrain from these men, and let them alone: for if this counsel or this work be of men, it will come to nought: But if it be of God, ye cannot overthrow it; lest haply ye be found even to fight against God. As we have received a royal command to keep this day as a day of fasting and prayer; I will adopt these words towards the present purpose, and show through many reasons that it is better for this kingdom to make peace with France. That it would be better for the king, lords and commons to unite to adopt Gamaliel's counsel in the text.

1. The circumstances of this kingdom's finances call loudly for peace. Britain is not in as prosperous a condition as many think she is. The crown debt has increased to such a degree that it is impossible for it to increase much more without destroying the realm. At the beginning of the American war the crown debt was only one hundred and thirty million pounds; when the war with France was begun it was 250 million; But since the beginning of this war the crown debt has increased greatly, and if the war lasts another year, the debt will run to 300 million. The poor subjects are already stooping under the taxes, and many are ready to give up their lands if more taxes are added, as must be done if the war persists. Now is it wisdom for a kingdom under such a burden of debt, under such circumstances as these to go to war? Peace is undoubtedly the best thing under such circumstances. For if the war continues then the debt will increase, and the consequence of this will be that the kingdom breaks: the kingdom will go Bankrupt, and what will be the consequence of that? Oh! the government of Great Britain will fall apart, and everything will be topsy-turvy. Hundreds of families who now swim in riches and plenty, and who live comfortably on the interest of the money they have lent to the crown, will be destroyed. For that reason let us pray for peace lest we experience these undesirable things.

2. The present woeful condition of our industries and our trade cry out for peace. The glory of Great Britain depends on the success of our Commerce and our domestic industries. For what reason is Britain richer and more exalted than any other nation, but that there is more encouragement for the arts amongst us, and that we have more domestic industries and more export trade. We have ships that sail to the ends of the earth, and which trade with (almost) every nation under the heavens. These carry our wares abroad, and bring back valuable treasures to enrich the inhabitants of the island of Britain. But since the beginning of the present war things have taken a strange turn, it would seem that this war has given a mortal blow to our domestic industries, and our trade with other nations. The artisans cannot sell their works, consequently they send their workers away; who, when they cannot get work, along with their wives and children, either go on the parish or on the high road. Over 22 thousand of these have already joined the army to fight the enemies, and their poor families in Manchester, Birmingham and Sheffield and various other places in the kingdom suffer cruelly because of the war. It is terrible to think that 71 banks have closed, and 1296 have become bankrupts in this last year; and this in a large measure if not entirely in consequence of the present war. And if things carry on like this, trade between citizens will cease and everyone will fall into poverty. Our ships are very often captured, and the merchants are afraid to send their goods overseas because the French are so often about our borders. It is impossible for things to carry on this way for long, for unless peace is concluded soon, this country will become as poor as the poorest in Europe. The impoverished worker lacks bread, because he has no work. His master, poor man, cannot give him work, because he cannot sell his goods: and no one can be found to buy the goods because it is too dangerous in time of war to send them to overseas countries. So you see that people of every degree suffer because of the present war, and unless peace is made soon more hardship will be felt yet. The blow that this war gave to our industries has driven many of our richest and most skilful workers to America. There they are left in peace and encouraged to carry on their various arts and their trade. They have now established in America every industry that was carried on here, which will lower their market prices so that they will have no reason to buy things from England. And will this not be a great loss to this kingdom? to what market will they take their wares henceforth?

3. The lamentable destruction which goes along with war calls loudly to the inhabitants of the island of Britain to leave the French alone. — — I think that war is the worst scourge on a kingdom's back. Over 500 thousand have been killed in this war already; is this a little sum in our eyes? Is the blood of our fellow creatures such an insignificant thing to us? The majority of these surely had fathers and mothers, wives and little children as dear to them as those of any other men. And many of their friends and relations in consequence of this have been left bereaved and destitute to spend their days in grief, mourning and sadness. We rejoice greatly upon hearing that our armies have succeeded, that cities are despoiled and taken, and that our enemies are put to the sword in their hundreds and thousands, without considering the sighs of the widows, the cries of the orphaned, and the losses of the proprietors. Splendid cities are turned into shattered heaps of rubble, fruitful fields into fields of blood; vast lands are plundered and overrun with famine, nakedness and every other kind of calamity. Given that, who, contemplating the destruction that war wreaks, would not pray for peace? Oh! the pity, that man, who was created in God's image, takes such delight in despoiling and spilling the blood of his neighbour! At home, the man who plunders his neighbour's money or furniture or sustenance is punished; but when this man goes to war, too often he is suffered to kill and burn wherever he goes; to destroy men, women, and children, and to share the spoils amongst his companions. And when he comes home he is exalted to the heavens as a giant who deserves high praise for his cruelty.

4. The small success our armies had last year calls on us also to take the counsel of Gamaliel in the text. Some cities were taken it is true, through much trouble, and expense, and spilled blood; but what of that? did not the enemy win the majority of them back? and on this consideration our enemies are not much worse off now than when they began to wage war. And what if the allied powers defeated France? Would this be of any advantage to Britain? No more than to cause an increase in taxes for the purpose of maintaining a standing army in France, to keep the inhabitants in grudging obedience and fear. We are told that we will starve the French in due course, because they have no people to work the land, because they are all soldiers. Whoever says this is totally ignorant of the quality of the land and the numbers of its inhabitants. Every historian knows that France is a very fertile country, and that there are 25 million inhabitants. They have not fully 5 million under arms, and it is a strange thing if there are not enough husbandmen among the 20 million who are left to till the earth. The truth is that they have as much food now as they ever had, and as they are rather strengthening and succeeding, we should make peace in good time lest we get into a situation from which there is no escape. They say freely in France that they intend to conquer this country, and that they have over 60 thousand men ready. If this is true, the sooner peace is made the better. Our best soldiers have gone out of the kingdom, so that we have but a few to defend our borders; given that, what will we do under such dreadful circumstances? We pray to God to forgive our sins, and defend our borders. — —


(Continues...)

Excerpted from Political Pamphlets and Sermons from Wales 1790â"1806 by Marion Löffler, Bethan Jenkins. Copyright © 2014 Marion Löffler. Excerpted by permission of University of Wales Press.
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Table of Contents

List of Figures

Preface

Translator’s Acknowledgements

Acknowledgements

List of Abbreviations

Editorial Principles

Political Pamphlets and Sermons from Wales 1790-1806: An Overview

Selection of Pamphlets

Select Bibliography

Index

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