Polymer Rheology: Fundamentals and Applications

Polymer Rheology: Fundamentals and Applications

by Tim A. Osswald, T. Rudolph

Hardcover

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Overview

This book is designed to provide a background in polymer rheology to both engineering students and practicing engineers. It is written at an intermediate level with sufficient technical information and practical examples to enable the reader to understand the interesting and complex rheological behavior of polymers, to make the right decisions regarding rheological testing methods, and to troubleshoot rheology related problems encountered in polymer processing. The organization of the book and the practical examples throughout make it an ideal textbook and reference source. Processors and raw material suppliers will find the information within particularly valuable. Rheology is a rapidly growing and industrially important field, playing a significant role not only in polymer processing, but also in food processing, coaching and printing, and many other manufacturing processes. Topics covered: Historical background, Structure and properties of deforming polymers, Generalized Newtonian fluid (GNF) models, Transport phenomena in rheometric flows, Linear viscoelasticity, Non-linear viscoelasticity, Rheometry

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781569905173
Publisher: Hanser
Publication date: 01/01/2015
Pages: 225
Product dimensions: 6.80(w) x 9.60(h) x 0.60(d)

Table of Contents

Dedication v

Preface vii

1 Introduction to Rheology 1

1.1 The Field of Rheology 5

1.2 Viscous Liquids or the Newtonian Fluid 7

1.3 Linear Elasticity or the Hookean Spring 10

1.4 Viscoelasticity and the Maxwell Model 13

1.5 Time Scale and the Deborah Number 16

1.6 Deformation, Rate of Deformation, and the Deviatoric Stress Tensors 18

1.7 Guide to the Book 20

Problems 21

References 21

2 Structure and Properties of Deforming Polymers 25

2.1 Molecular Structure of Polymers 25

2.2 Stress Relaxation Behavior 32

2.3 Shear Thinning Behavior 37

2.4 Normal Stresses in Shear Flow 40

2.5 Stress Overshoot during Start-up Flow 44

2.6 Melt Strength or Melt Fracture 45

2.7 Dynamic Response 47

Problems 56

References 57

3 Generalized Newtonian Fluid (GNF) Models 59

3.1 Temperature Dependence of Viscosity 61

3.2 Viscous Flow Models 65

3.2.1 The Power Law Model 66

3.2.2 The Bird-Carreau-Yasuda Model 68

3.2.3 The Cross-WLF Model 70

3.2.4 The Bingham Model 71

3.2.5 The Herschel-Bulkley Model 72

3.2.6 Accounting for Pressure Dependence in Viscous Flow Models 73

3.2.6.1 Power Law 73

3.2.6.2 Carreau-WLF 73

3.2.6.3 Cross-WLF 74

3.2.6.4 Universal Temperature and Pressure Invariant Viscosity Function 75

3.3 Elongational Viscosity 80

3.4 Suspension Rheology 82

3.5 Chemo-Rheology 87

Problems 95

References 97

4 Transport Phenomena 101

4.1 Dimensionless Groups 102

4.2 Balance Equations 106

4.2.1 The Mass Balance or Continuity Equation 106

4.2.2 The Material or Substantial Derivative 107

4.2.3 The Momentum Balance or Equation of Motion 109

4.2.4 The Energy Balance or Equation of Energy 114

4.3 Model Simplification 117

4.3.1 Reduction in Dimensionality 119

4.3.2 Lubrication Approximation 123

4.4 Viscometric Flows 125

4.4.1 Pressure Driven Flow of a Newtonian Fluid through a Slit 125

4.4.2 Flow of a Power Law Fluid in a Straight Circular Tube (Hagen-Poiseuille Equation) 126

4.4.3 Volumetric Flow Rate of a Power Law Fluid in Axial Annular Flow 129

4.4.4 Circular Annular Couette Flow of a Power Law Fluid 131

4.4.5 Squeezing Flow of a Newtonian Fluid between Two Parallel Circular Discs 134

4.4.6 Flow of a Power Law Fluid between Two Parallel Circular Discs 137

Problems 140

References 141

5 Viscoelasticity 143

5.1 Linear Viscoelasticity 144

5.1.1 Relaxation Modulus 144

5.1.2 The Boltzmann Superposition Principle 145

5.1.3 The Maxwell Model - Relaxation 147

5.1.4 Kelvin Model 148

5.1.5 Jeffrey's Model 150

5.1.6 Standard Linear Solid Model 152

5.1.7 The Generalized Maxwell Model 154

5.1.8 Dynamic Tests 160

5.2 Non-Linear Viscoelasticity 164

5.2.1 Objectivity 164

5.2.2 Differential Viscoelastic Models 166

5.2.3 Integral Viscoelastic Models 179

References 184

6 Rheometry 187

6.1 The Sliding Plate Rheometer 189

6.2 The Cone-Plate Rheometer 191

6.3 The Parallel-Plate Rheometer 194

6.4 The Capillary Rheometer 196

6.4.1 Computing Viscosity Using the Bagley and Weissenberg-Rabinowitsch Equations 198

6.4.2 Viscosity Approximation Using the Representative Viscosity Method 201

6.5 The Melt Flow Indexer 202

6.6 Extensional Rheometry 203

6.7 High Pressure Rheometers 209

6.8 Integrated Mold Sensors for Quality Control 214

Problems 217

References 218

Subject Index 221

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