Positive-strand RNA viruses include the majority of the plant viruses, a number of insect viruses, and animal viruses, such as coronaviruses, togaviruses, flaviviruses, poliovirus, hepatitis C, and rhinoviruses. Works from more than 50 leading laboratories represent latest research on strategies for the control of virus diseases: molecular aspects of pathogenesis and virulence; genome replication and transcription; RNA recombination; RNA-protein interactions and host-virus interactions; protein expression and virion maturation; RNA replication; virus receptors; and virus structure and assembly. Highlights include analysis of the picornavirus IRES element, evidence for long term persistence of viral RNA in host cells, acquisition of new genes from the host and other viruses via copy-choice recombination, identification of molecular targets and use of structural and molecular biological studies for development of novel antiviral agents.
Table of ContentsKeynote address.- The importance of antigenic variation in vaccine design.- Strategies for control of virus diseases.- The genetic and functional basis of HIV-1 resistance to nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors.- Structure-based design of symmetric inhibitors of HIV-1 protease.- Age-dependent susceptibility to fatal encephalitis: alphavirus infection of neurons.- Principles and background for the construction of transgenic plants displaying multiple virus resistance.- The structure of an immunodominant loop on foot and mouth disease virus, serotype O1, determined under reducing conditions.- Immunopathologic mechanisms of dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome.- Molecular aspects of pathogenesis and virulence.- Cardioviral poly(C) tracts and viral pathogenesis.- Transgenic mice and the pathogenesis of poliomyelitis.- Adaptation of positive-strand RNA viruses to plants.- A molecular genetic approach to the study of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus pathogenesis.- Use of drug-resistance mutants to identify functional regions in picornavirus capsid proteins.- Flock house virus: a simple model for studying persistent infection in cultured Drosophila cells.- Genome replication and transcription.- Protein-protein interactions and glycerophospholipids in bromovirus and nodavirus RNA replication.- Characteristics of the poliovirus replication complex.- Secretory pathway function, but not cytoskeletal integrity, is required in poliovirus infection.- Role of sub-genomic minus-strand RNA in Coronavirus replication.- Common replication strategies emerging from the study of diverse groups of positive-strand RNA viruses.- Preferential replication of defective turnip yellow mosaic virus RNAs that express the 150-kDa protein in cis.- In vivo transfection by hepatitis A virus synthetic RNA.- RNA recombination.- Recombination between Sindbis virus RNAs.- Homologous RNA recombination allows efficient introduction of site-specific mutations into the genome of Coronavirus MHV-A59 via synthetic co-replicating RNAs.- Targeting of the site of nonhomologous genetic recombination in brome mosaic virus.- Natural recombination in bovine viral diarrhea viruses.- Sequences at the ends of RNA-2 of 16, a recombinant tobravirus.- RNA-protein interactions and host-virus interactions.- Identification and characterization of host factor interactions with cis-acting elements of rubella virus RNA.- Interaction of cellular proteins with the poliovirus 5? noncoding region.- IRES-controlled protein synthesis and genome replication of poliovirus.- Analysis of hepatitis A virus translation in a T7 polymerase-expressing cell line.- Purification and characterization of the U-particle, a cellular constituent whose synthesis is stimulated by mengovirus infection.- B-lymphocytes are predominantly involved in viral propagation of hepatitis C virus (HCV).- Protein expression and virion maturation.- Folding of the mouse hepatitis virus spike protein and its association with the membrane protein.- Assembly and entry mechanisms of Semliki Forest virus.- The interactions of the flavivirus envelope proteins: implications for virus entry and release.- Coronavirus polyprotein processing.- Processing of dengue type 4 and other flavivirus nonstructural proteins.- Nuclear targeting of Semliki Forest virus nsP2.- RNA replication.- Replication and translation of cowpea mosaic virus RNAs are tightly linked.- Alphavirus positive and negative strand RNA synthesis and the role of polyproteins in formation of viral replication complexes.- Nodavirus RNA replication: mechanism and harnessing to vaccinia virus recombinants.- Molecular characterization of Borna virus RNAs.- Genomic organization and expression of astroviruses and calciviruses.- Lelystad virus belongs to a new virus family, comprising lactate dehydrogenase- elevating virus, equine arteritis virus, and simian hemorrhagic fever virus.- Virus receptors.- Recognition of cellular receptors by bovine corona-virus.- Mouse hepatitis virus receptors: more than a single carcinoembryonic antigen.- Host-cell receptors for Sindbis virus.- Cell surface receptor for ecotropic host-range mouse retroviruses: a cationic amino acid transporter.- Virus structure and assembly.- Comparative studies of T = 3 and T = 4 icosahedral RNA insect viruses.- Retroviral RNA packaging: a review.- Structural studies of viruses by electron cryomicroscopy.- Crystallographic and cryo EM analysis of virion-receptor interactions.- Assembly of tobacco mosaic virus and TMV-like pseudovirus particles in Escherichia coli.